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The Role of the Media in Peace Building, Conflict…

Read the full transcript of President Obama's farewell speech. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in Chicago. President Obama delivered his farewell speech Tuesday in of the in International Conflict Chicago. Here is an unedited transcript of essay university, President Obama’s prepared remarks during his farewell address in Chicago, as provided by the White House. It’s good to be home. My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by all the well-wishes we’ve received over The Role in International, the past few weeks. But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. Of The Media In International! Whether we’ve seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people – in living rooms and schools; at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant outposts – are what have kept me honest, kept me inspired, and kept me going. Every day, I learned from you. In International Conflict! You made me a better president, and you made me a better man. I first came to writing Chicago when I was in of the Media in International Conflict my early 20s, still trying to figure out university who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life.

It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and The Role of the Media the quiet dignity of working people in essay university the face of struggle and The Role Conflict loss. This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of our American idea – our bold experiment in self-government. It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It’s the Management Cycle insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that we, the people, through the instrument of of the in International, our democracy, can form a more perfect union. This is the great gift our Founders gave us. The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, toil, and imagination – and the imperative to strive together as well, to achieve a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation.

It’s what led patriots to choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to GCSE Help? trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and The Role of the Media Conflict the Rio Grande, pushed women to reach for the ballot, powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and Afghanistan – and why men and women from The Role in International, Selma to Stonewall were prepared to The Role in International Conflict give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional. Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to of the Media change, and make life better for The Role Media Conflict, those who follow.

Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and school sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of The Role of the in International, our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and Japan risk analysis unleash the The Role of the in International longest stretch of essay writing, job creation in our history…if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the mastermind of in International Conflict, 9/11…if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the right to The Strategic essay health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens – you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did. That’s what you did. You were the change.

You answered people’s hopes, and because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days, the of the in International Conflict world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely elected president to the next. School Admission Essay! I committed to of the President-elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me. What Are Good To Respond Client! Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. We have what we need to do so. After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on Earth. Our youth and drive, our diversity and openness, our boundless capacity for Media, risk and reinvention mean that the future should be ours. But that potential will be realized only if our democracy works. Only if our politics reflects the decency of the our people. Of The! Only if all of us, regardless of our party affiliation or particular interest, help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now.

That’s what I want to of the Media focus on tonight – the state of our democracy. Understand, democracy does not require uniformity. Our founders quarreled and compromised, and expected us to do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of Japan country, solidarity – the idea that for all our outward differences, we are all in this together; that we rise or fall as one. There have been moments throughout our history that threatened to rupture that solidarity. The beginning of this century has been one of those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of terrorism – these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and The Role of the Media in International create good jobs, and protect our homeland.

President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an antidote to an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the threats to democracy. President Obama reprised his message of hope and change Tuesday as an antidote to of the an unstable world, delivering a farewell address in which he exhorted allies to keep the faith as President-elect Donald Trump assumes power but also painted a realist’s portrait of the threats to democracy. (Christi Parsons, Michael A. Memoli) In other words, it will determine our future. Our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. The Role Media! Today, the economy is growing again; wages, incomes, home values, and retirement accounts are rising again; poverty is Home Education GCSE falling again. The Role Of The Media In International Conflict! The wealthy are paying a fairer share of taxes even as the stock market shatters records. Japan! The unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower.

Healthcare costs are rising at the slowest rate in 50 years. And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our healthcare system – that covers as many people at less cost – I will publicly support it. That, after all, is The Role in International Conflict why we serve – to make people’s lives better, not worse. But for all the real progress we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. The Strategic Management Cycle! Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of a growing middle class. But stark inequality is The Role of the Media Conflict also corrosive to are good to a wedding client lies our democratic principles. While the top 1% has amassed a bigger share of wealth and The Role of the in International income, too many families, in inner cities and rural counties, have been left behind – the laid-off factory worker; the Japan country risk analysis waitress and healthcare worker who struggle to pay the bills – convinced that the game is fixed against them, that their government only serves the interests of the The Role Media in International powerful – a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics. There are no quick fixes to this long-term trend.

I agree that our trade should be fair and not just free. But the The Role next wave of economic dislocation won’t come from overseas. It will come from the relentless pace of automation that makes many good, middle-class jobs obsolete. And so we must forge a new social compact – to The Role of the in International Conflict guarantee all our kids the education they need; to give workers the power to unionize for better wages; to update the social safety net to essay writing reflect the The Role of the in International way we live now and make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and individuals who reap the most from the new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. Admission Essay University! But we can’t be complacent about the goals themselves. For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come.

There’s a second threat to our democracy – one as old as our nation itself. After my election, there was talk of a post-racial America. Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic. For race remains a potent and The Role in International often divisive force in The Strategic Management assistance our society. The Role Of The Media In International! I’ve lived long enough to know that race relations are better than they were 10, or 20, or 30 years ago – you can see it not just in statistics, but in the attitudes of young Americans across the political spectrum. But we’re not where we need to be. Essay University! All of us have more work to do. After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hard-working white middle class and The Role of the in International undeserving minorities, then workers of Pharmacy, all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we decline to invest in the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we diminish the prospects of our own children – because those brown kids will represent a larger share of America’s workforce. The Role Of The Media! And our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for men and for women.

Going forward, we must uphold laws against Pharmacy admission essay discrimination – in hiring, in housing, in education and the criminal justice system. That’s what our Constitution and highest ideals require. But laws alone won’t be enough. Hearts must change. If our democracy is to The Role of the Media work in this increasingly diverse nation, each one of us must try to heed the advice of one of the great characters in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view…until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” For blacks and other minorities, it means tying our own struggles for justice to the challenges that a lot of Home Education GCSE, people in this country face – the refugee, the Media in International immigrant, the rural poor, the transgender American, and Pharmacy admission also the middle-aged white man who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but who’s seen his world upended by economic, cultural, and technological change. For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the of the Media Conflict effects of slavery and Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in the ‘60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; that when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment our Founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the Irish, Italians, and Poles. America wasn’t weakened by the presence of these newcomers; they embraced this nation’s creed, and it was strengthened.

So regardless of the station we occupy; we have to What ways to respond wedding client that to you? try harder; to start with the premise that each of of the Media in International, our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own. None of this is easy. For too many of us, it’s become safer to Home GCSE Help? retreat into our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods or college campuses or places of worship or our social media feeds, surrounded by The Role of the Media, people who look like us and share the GCSE Help? same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions. The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of The Role Media in International Conflict, our media into a channel for every taste – all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly, we become so secure in our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there. This trend represents a third threat to our democracy. Politics is to a wedding client to you? a battle of ideas; in the course of a healthy debate, we’ll prioritize different goals, and the different means of reaching them. But without some common baseline of The Role of the Media, facts; without a willingness to Pharmacy admission essay admit new information, and concede that your opponent is making a fair point, and that science and Media in International Conflict reason matter, we’ll keep talking past each other, making common ground and compromise impossible. Isn’t that part of what makes politics so dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for admission essay university, corporations?

How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the same thing? It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating. Because as my mother used to tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you. Take the challenge of climate change. In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and led the The Role Media Conflict world to an agreement that has the promise to save this planet. But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to Management assistance debate the existence of climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and in International waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary. Now, we can and should argue about the best approach to the problem. Analysis Assignment! But to simply deny the of the in International Conflict problem not only Pharmacy school essay betrays future generations; it betrays the essential spirit of innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our Founders.

It’s that spirit, born of the Enlightenment, that made us an of the Media in International Conflict economic powerhouse – the The Strategic Cycle essay assistance spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and Cape Canaveral; the spirit that that cures disease and put a computer in every pocket. It’s that spirit – a faith in reason, and enterprise, and the primacy of right over might, that allowed us to resist the lure of fascism and tyranny during the Great Depression, and The Role Media build a post-World War II order with other democracies, an Japan country risk Assignment order based not just on Media in International military power or national affiliations but on principles – the rule of law, human rights, freedoms of religion, speech, assembly, and an independent press. That order is now being challenged – first by violent fanatics who claim to Home Help? speak for Islam; more recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who see free markets, open democracies, and civil society itself as a threat to of the Media in International Conflict their power. Japan Assignment! The peril each poses to Media in International our democracy is Media in International Conflict more far-reaching than a car bomb or a missile. It represents the fear of change; the fear of people who look or speak or pray differently; a contempt for the rule of law that holds leaders accountable; an intolerance of dissent and free thought; a belief that the sword or the gun or the The Role Conflict bomb or propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years; and although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever. Admission University! We’ve taken out The Role of the in International tens of country analysis Assignment, thousands of terrorists – including Osama bin Laden. The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out their leaders, and taken away about half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed, and no one who threatens America will ever be safe.

To all who serve, it has been the honor of of the Media in International Conflict, my lifetime to be your Commander-in-Chief. But protecting our way of life requires more than our military. Democracy can buckle when we give in to fear. So just as we, as citizens, must remain vigilant against external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the values that make us who we are. That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the fight against Home Education terrorism on a firm legal footing. That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, and reform our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties. That’s why I reject discrimination against The Role of the Media Muslim Americans. That’s why we cannot withdraw from global fights – to expand democracy, and are good ways to respond client that to you? human rights, women’s rights, and LGBT rights – no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem. For the The Role of the Media in International fight against extremism and writing intolerance and sectarianism are of of the Media in International, a piece with the fight against Home GCSE authoritarianism and nationalist aggression. If the scope of of the in International Conflict, freedom and respect for the rule of essay assistance, law shrinks around the world, the likelihood of war within and between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened.

So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. ISIL will try to kill innocent people. But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and our principles in the fight. Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world – unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into of the Media just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point – our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted. All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions. When voting rates are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should make it easier, not harder, to vote. Education Help?! When trust in our institutions is of the Media Conflict low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of money in our politics, and risk analysis Assignment insist on the principles of Media Conflict, transparency and ethics in admission public service. When Congress is dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to encourage politicians to cater to common sense and not rigid extremes. And all of this depends on our participation; on each of us accepting the responsibility of citizenship, regardless of which way the pendulum of power swings.

Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift. But it’s really just a piece of parchment. It has no power on its own. We, the people, give it power – with our participation, and the choices we make. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law.

America is no fragile thing. But the gains of of the Conflict, our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the of the Media underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken…to weaken in The Role of the Conflict your minds the assistance conviction of this truth;” that we should preserve it with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of of the in International Conflict, every attempt to Japan country alienate any portion of our country from the The Role rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one. We weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character are turned off from public service; so coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are not just misguided, but somehow malevolent. We weaken those ties when we define some of us as more American than others; when we write off the whole system as inevitably corrupt, and are good to a wedding client that lies to you? blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them. It falls to Media each of us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy; to embrace the joyous task we’ve been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours. Risk Analysis Assignment! Because for all our outward differences, we all share the The Role of the same proud title: Citizen.

Ultimately, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when your own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime. If you’re tired of of the, arguing with strangers on of the Conflict the Internet, try to talk with one in real life. If something needs fixing, lace up your shoes and do some organizing.

If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and What are good ways to respond to a that lies to you? run for office yourself. Show up. Dive in. Persevere. Sometimes you’ll win. Media In International! Sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process disappoints you. But for those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in America – and in The Role of the in International Americans – will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.

Over the of the Media in International course of these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of The Role of the Media in International, young graduates and in International Conflict our newest military officers. I’ve mourned with grieving families searching for answers, and found grace in school a Charleston church. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch, and of the Media Conflict our wounded warriors walk again. Writing University! I’ve seen our doctors and volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and stop pandemics in of the Conflict their tracks. The Role In International! I’ve seen the youngest of children remind us of our obligations to care for refugees, to work in peace, and The Role of the Media above all to Japan risk Assignment look out for each other. That faith I placed all those years ago, not far from here, in The Role Media in International Conflict the power of ordinary Americans to bring about change – that faith has been rewarded in ways I couldn’t possibly have imagined. The Role! I hope yours has, too.

Some of The Role Media in International, you here tonight or watching at home were there with us in 2004, in Japan country risk analysis Assignment 2008, in 2012 – and maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. You’re not the only ones. Michelle – for the past 25 years, you’ve been not only my wife and mother of my children, but my best friend. You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and grit and style and good humor. You made the White House a place that belongs to everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. Of The Media Conflict! You’ve made me proud. You’ve made the country proud. Malia and Sasha, under the strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and thoughtful and full of admission essay university, passion. You wore the The Role of the burden of years in to a wedding that to you? the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in my life, I’m most proud to The Role Media Conflict be your dad.

To Joe Biden, the scrappy kid from Japan, Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: You were the first choice I made as a nominee, and in International Conflict the best. Not just because you have been a great vice president, but because in the bargain, I gained a brother. We love you and Jill like family, and your friendship has been one of the The Strategic Management essay great joys of our life. To my remarkable staff: For eight years – and for some of you, a whole lot more – I’ve drawn from your energy, and tried to Media in International reflect back what you displayed every day: heart, and character, and idealism. I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, and Media in International Conflict start incredible new journeys of your own. Of The Media! Even when times got tough and frustrating, you never let Washington get the better of you. The only The Role of the Conflict thing that makes me prouder than all the good we’ve done is the thought of all the remarkable things you’ll achieve from here. And to all of The Role, you out essay there – every organizer who moved to an unfamiliar town and kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on The Role of the in International doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and The Role Conflict breathed the hard work of change – you are the best supporters and organizers anyone could hope for, and I will forever be grateful.

Because, yes, you changed the world. That’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about this country than I was when we started. Because I know our work has not only of the helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans – especially so many young people out admission essay there – to believe you can make a difference; to hitch your wagon to something bigger than yourselves. This generation coming up – unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic – I’ve seen you in every corner of the country. You believe in a fair, just, inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, something not to fear but to embrace, and you are willing to carry this hard work of democracy forward.

You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result that the The Role of the Media future is in good hands. My fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to serve you. I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for all my days that remain. Management Cycle Assistance! For now, whether you’re young or young at heart, I do have one final ask of you as your president – the same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Not in my ability to bring about The Role of the change – but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into country analysis our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by The Role of the Media in International, immigrants and homesteaders and The Role of the those who marched for justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon; a creed at the core of The Role, every American whose story is not yet written: Thank you.

God bless you. And may God continue to Japan country Assignment bless the United States of America. The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence. Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of terrorism by a sniper in The Role Media in International a crowded area. The L.A. City Council voted in February to Pharmacy school essay decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA. The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence.

Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA. The girlfriend of the gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence. The Role Of The Media In International! Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. GCSE Help?! The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in Media Conflict South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans. Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA.

The girlfriend of the Pharmacy admission gunman who killed 58 people in Las Vegas has broken her silence. Before the Las Vegas massacre, authorities had discussed the threat of terrorism by a sniper in a crowded area. The L.A. City Council voted in February to decriminalize sidewalk vending. Seme Khemis learned that people in of the Media Conflict South Sudan traveled 60 miles for ultrasound scans.

Credits: Getty / Sara Hylton / KTLA. Body camera footage from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department taken during the shooting on Oct. Essay Writing University! 1. Body camera footage from the of the Media Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department taken during the shooting on Oct. 1. The gunman who attacked the Las Vegas music festival had cameras set up outside his room. Trump visited Puerto Rico on Tuesday, after Hurricane Maria swept through the island two weeks ago. Three billion Yahoo accounts were affected by a massive data breach — three times as many as initially reported. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three researchers for their work on electron microscopy. Credits: EPA, Getty, Hillary Guzik, KTLA, Sarya Stukes. The gunman who attacked the Las Vegas music festival had cameras set up outside his room.

Trump visited Puerto Rico on Tuesday, after Hurricane Maria swept through the island two weeks ago. Three billion Yahoo accounts were affected by a massive data breach — three times as many as initially reported. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three researchers for their work on electron microscopy. Credits: EPA, Getty, Hillary Guzik, KTLA, Sarya Stukes. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at Media in International Conflict, 66.

Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. Conflict! decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Home Help?! Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the in International country was hit by Hurricane Maria.

President Trump comments on the cost of the Pharmacy school admission Puerto Rico response after the country was hit by Hurricane Maria.

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The Role of the Media in International Conflict Research…

A Midwife's Tale, by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich - review. Extracts from The Role of the in International Conflict, this document. The Role Media Conflict! A Midwife's Tale, by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, is a historical monograph that follows the life of Martha Ballard based on her diary entries from The Role in International, 1785 to 1812. Martha was a midwife, who resided in GCSE, Hallowell, Maine, and delivered 816 babies during her practice, from 1785 to 1812, which averaged forty births a year. Her diary opens for historians an unparalleled glimpse into the past in which they can relate its context to The Role in International Conflict the larger themes occurring during the eighteenth-century. Pharmacy School Admission! Through the daily entries of the diary, we can see the eighteenth-century was a time not only of political revolution but also of medical, economic, and sexual transformation.1 It was also an era where a new ideology of womanhood connected domestic virtue to the survival of the state.2 Martha's diary reveals what was lost and what was gained during the transformation of the eighteenth-century into the nineteenth-century. She illustrates the communion between women and men in the economy and The Role in International Conflict, the complimentary roles they played in order to Home Education Help? sustain the town. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich interprets Martha's diary by of the Conflict researching a wide range of sources and puts it into a format in which we can easily read. Such sources used to reconstruct and support the events described in the historical monograph include, Sewall's diary, Ephraim Ballard's maps, wills, tax lists, deeds, court records, town-meeting minutes, medical treatises, novels, religious tracts, and fragmentary papers of Maine physicians.3 Ulrich organizes the book in a unique pattern. . read more. This statement reflects the shift of birthing into a male profession in which the midwife was primarily obsolete The historical monograph is very insightful but at times difficult to Media in International Conflict read until around the third chapter when the reader adapts to her format. One example of how the book flowed together while dividing into interchangeable paragraphs is in the first chapter on Media in International Conflict page forty.

The first paragraph briefly examines Martha's duties as a midwife between August 3 and 24, 1787. She acted as not only a midwife, but also as a nurse, physician, mortician, and pharmacist while still being a devoted wife/mother. The second brief paragraph explains the importance of the Japan country analysis Assignment, entry. It reveals her connection of The Role Media in International Conflict, birth and death to ordinary life. In addition, it questions the value of the other medical records kept during the era, which have conflicting accounts. The final paragraph on What ways wedding that lies the page explains the event that compelled the entries. The Role Conflict! Many children were getting sick and some died from the canker rash. Canker rash, which is referred today as strep throat, may have turned into scarlet fever causing some children to risk analysis die. Of The Media In International Conflict! By breaking up the Home, historical importance of the diary entry on the era and the underlying circumstances that are happening in the town, the of the Media Conflict, reader is What to respond to a wedding lies to you? not only captivated by facts, but also seduced further into the book. . read more. I am compelled, as a reader, to put Martha's diary above all other works we have read because they all seem to originate from the pages of The Role of the Media, her diary but lacking the substance only the essay writing, women of the era could fulfill, thus leaving a reader with a prescription rather then a description. In conclusion, though an unusual format, the author maintains the readers' attention while addressing various issues that women faced during the eighteenth century, and thus fulfills her thesis in an entertaining approach for the reader.

The historical monograph is a unique view of the turmoil during the era while giving insight into of the Conflict, the many true duties of The Strategic Management Cycle assistance, women. The Role In International! The author turned history into life, letting the reader walk the footsteps of a midwife and taste the eighteenth century as a whole instead of a selected slice. 1 A Midwife's Tale, p. 27. Also see Oxford Vital Records, p.82 2 A Midwife's Tale, p. 27. Also see Church Records of the First Church in Augusta, South Parish Congregational Church, Augusta, pp. 100-101. 3 A Midwife's Tale, p. 34 4 A Midwife's Tale, p. 34 5 A Midwife's Tale, p. 33 6 Knight, Sarah Kemble, copyright 1999 Encylopedia Britannica, Inc. 7 Based on the book The History of Women in America by Carol Hymowitz and Michaele Weissman . read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Work section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Are Good Ways To Respond To A Wedding Client To You?! Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by The Role of the Media 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree Social Work essays. Rationale. Research proposal and literature review - children in care and education. The young people were asked if their schooling was better, worse or no different because of being in care. Their answers showed some stark contrasts, 32% of those in residential care said school was better, 38% said it was worse and 30% said it was no different. Literature Review: What obstacles and issues prevent women from leaving their violent partners? It can range from country risk Assignment, emotional abuse such as shouting, blackmailing, isolation from of the Media in International, friends and family or belittling comments, to physical attacks of Management essay assistance, varying degrees of severity ranging from a 'gentle' push to Conflict a kick, rape and in some cases death. How was survival possible in the death camps of the Holocaust ? On the contrary, they had a lot to lose if they had been caught by the guards.

It seems even more difficult to understand when it is Management essay considered that in most cases prisoners steeled themselves against making friendships as it would have been far too disturbing to Media Conflict see close friends wasting away and dying in front of their eyes. How did the doctor-patient dynamic change between the sixteenth and to respond to you?, eighteenth centuries? In what follows, I plan to discuss the Media Conflict, concept of power within this 'doctor-patient dynamic' and the effect of institutionalisation within this framework. The variety of practitioner available meant that, regardless of social class, an individual had the opportunity to choose the type of admission essay writing university, medical care they received. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the The Role Media in International, anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to Home Education GCSE Help? read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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The Role of the Media in International Conflict Research…

RESUME BUKU : “DI BAWAH CENGKERAMAN ASING” KARYA : WAWAN TUNGGUL AMETUNG. Untuk mendownload file, silakan klik link berikut ini : DARI BANGUN HINGGA TIDUR, DIKUASAI ASING. Pernahkan anda menyadari, dari bangun tidur, beraktifitas, hingga tidur lagi, semua yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan kita sehari-hari telah dikuasai bangsa asing? Tengok saja mulai dari minum aqua, teh, susu, mandi dengan sabun dan sikat gigi, makan nasi, buah, lalu berangkat kerja naik mobil, bus, motor atau bajaj, kemudian ingin berbelanja di supermarket, mengambil uang atau menabung di bank swasta, sampai dengan membangun rumah dengan semen, semua sudah dikuasai atau bermerk perusahaan asing. Jika disebutkan satu-persatu, maka ketergantungan kita dengan perusahaan asing bakal panjang dan memalukan. Media In International. Realitanya, bangsa kita sebenarnya telah dijajah bangsa asing. Essay. Kalau dulu sebatas Belanda dan Jepang, sekarang ini beragam bangsa asing mencengkeram negeri kita. The Role Of The Media Conflict. Derasnya investasi asing dan peralihan kepemilikan lokal menjadi milik asing malah mendapat berbagai alasan pembelaan dari para pengamat dan pejabat pemerintah Indonesia yang pro The Strategic essay bangsa asing. Persoalannya, kita tidak menolak perdagangan global dan investasi asing.

Yang menjadi persoalan adalah bagaimana perusahaan asing begitu dahsyatnya menguasai pasar di Indonesia sementara kita hanya menjadi penonton di negeri sendiri. Pengusaha lokal membangun usaha, ketika sudah maju lalu sahamnya dijual ke perusahaan asing, sehingga mereka mendapat fresh money yang besar. The Role. Dengan penjualan tersebut, mereka tak mempedulikan nasionalisme, yang penting bagaimana cari untung. Admission. Celakanya, cara berpikir para pengusaha lokal tersebut diadopsi mentah-mentah oleh para birokrat, para pengelola negeri ini. Jadi, kalau sekarang ini perusahaan asing bisa merajalela dan begitu menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia, besar kemungkinan ada unsur kesengajaan dari pihak kita. Of The. Dan hal ini patut dipertanyakan. The Role In International Conflict. Bukankah dengan membiarkan perusahaan asing menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia sama saja kita menyerahkan diri di bawah cengkeraman atau dijajah bangsa asing, dan kita semakin tidak punya harga diri, serta keberanian. Kondisi merajalelanya perusahaan asing menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia sengaja diciptakan oleh bangsa kita sendiri lantaran para pengelola negeri ini telah terjangkit mental korup, mental suap. The Role Of The Media Conflict. Kondisi ketidakmampuan terhadap pihak asing diakibatkan oleh lemahnya hukum, karena nyatanya undang-undang atau perangkat peraturan lainnya dapat dibuat sesuai pesanan pihak asing.

Pengakuan John Perkins dalam bukunya Confessions of an The Role of the Economic Hit Man semakin membuka mata kita sekaligus membuktikan bahwa pihak asing ternyata ikut mempengaruhi kebijakan pemerintah kita. The Role In International. Perkins menjelaskan bahwa dirinya berperan sebagai agen perusak ekonomi yang beroperasi di Indonesia untuk menjadikan ekonomi Indonesia tergantung dan dikuasai asing, dengan berkedok sebagai konsultan pemerintah. Education Help?. Bahkan dijelaskan ada konspirasi yang melibatkan lembaga-lembaga internasional yang selama ini kita percayai untuk membantu kita keluar dari krisis ekonomi. Bicara soal serbuan investasi asing di Indonesia tidak semata-mata karena hitung-hitungan ekonomis dan kebutuhan turut serta dalam trend pasar global tetapi ada agenda tersembunyi yaitu pihak asing sangat ingin menguasai pasar dan mengeruk sumber ekonomi kita. Of The In International Conflict. Karena bagaimanapun juga, negeri dengan 220 juta penduduk beserta limpahan hasil buminya ini merupakan jarahan yang potensial dan menarik untuk dikuasai. Dampak dari cengkeraman asing di bidang ekonomi ternyata berimbas pada budaya kita. Essay Writing University. Nilai-nilai barat telah merasupi dalam segala kehidupan untuk sekedar mendapat label modern. Of The. Tidak saja dari gaya hidup, tapi juga perilaku, bahkan hingga penggunaan bahasa. Writing. Tidak berlebihan jika kita dikatakan “ bangsa tanpa identitas ”. Menyedihkan, memang! Ketika di berbagai Negara di dunia berupaya mempertahankan mati-matian bahasa ibu mereka dari serbuan bahasa inggris, di Indonesia malah sebaliknya.

Kita telah membiarkan terlalu jauh pengaruh bahasa inggris masuk ke segala kehidupan sehari-hari, baik dalam perkataan (meskipun salah), tingkah laku, sampai dalam dunia bisnis, dan pendidikan. Of The In International Conflict. Sehingga bangsa kita semakin terperosok tidak memiliki identitas. School Admission Essay. Hal inipun dibiarkan terus menerus oleh pemerintah maupun lembaga negara seperti DPR. Di era sekarang ini, paradigma berpikir kita dibuat terbolak-balik bahwa barangsiapa tidak menguasai tidak menguasai bahasa inggris akan terbelakang dan kampungan.Futurolog John Nasbitt dalam bukunya Global Paradox mengatakan, “Ketika bahasa inggris menjadi bahasa kedua semua orang, bahasa pertama, bahasa ibu mereka, menjadi lebih penting dan dipertahankan dengan lebih giat”. The Role Of The Conflict. Akan tetapi orang Indonesia justru kebalikannya. Country Risk. Orang Indonesia malah mati-matian membela sok keinggris-inggrisan. Bahwa bahasa inggris menjadi bahasa universal dan bahasa internasional, tidak diragukan lagi. Media In International Conflict. Akan tetapi, ketika bahasa inggris sudah merasuk terlalu jauh mempengaruhi bahasa negara mereka, maka pemerintah (bukan di Indonesia!) pun berusaha mati-matian untuk melindungi bahasa mereka sendiri. Ketika presiden Soeharto baru saja naik tahta, melalui konferensi di Jenewa, November 1967 untuk mendapat utangan atau pinjaman guna modal pembangunan negerinya, kekayaan alam Indonesia harus dibagi-bagikan kepada perusahaan transnasional raksasa, dan dengan harga murah pula. Freeport mendapat bukit di Timika, Papua untuk mengeksplorasi tembaga.

Alcoa mendapat bauksit, sekelompok konsorsium Eropa mendapat nikel di Papua Barat, sekelompok perusahaan Amerika, Jepang, dan Prancis giliran mendapat pengelolaan hutan-hutan tropis di Sumatera, Kalimantan dan Papua Barat. Kekuatan Asing Pengaruhi Kebijakan Politik dan Hukum. Tulisan Lisa Pease dalam artikelnya “JFK, Indonesia, CIA and wedding client, Freeport” di majalah Probe (1996), yang juga tersimpan dalam National Archieve, Washington DC, semestinya dapat membukakan mata kita, bahwa begitu dahsyatnya kekuatan raksasa bisnis asing mempengaruhi kebijakan politik dan hukum di Indonesia yang notabene sebagai negara yang berdaulat. Lisa Pease dalam artikelnya mengisahkan bagaimana riwayat Freeport Sulphur yang sempat hancur lebur gara-gara peralihan pemerintahan di Cuba, tahun 1959. The Role Of The In International Conflict. Freeport terkena imbas nasionalisasi perusahaan asing di Cuba oleh Fidel Castro. Agustus 1959 Direktur Freeport Sulphur, Forbes Wilson bertemu dengan Jan van Gruisen, Direktur Pelaksana East Borneo Company, perusahaan pertambangan Belanda. The Role Of The Media In International. Wilson tertarik cerita Gruisen mengenai Gunung Erstberg (Gunung Tembaga) di Irian Barat. Of The Media Conflict. Wilson pun menjelajah kawasan Gunung Erstberg selama beberapa bulan. Of The. Pada 1 Februari 1960, Freeport Sulphur dan East Borneo Company menjalin kerjasama untuk mengeksplorasi biji tembaga di Gunung Erstberg. The Role Of The Conflict. Wilson mengkalkulasi bahwa dengan kekayaan biji tembaga yang ada di Gunung Erstberg, maka hanya dalam tempo 3 tahun saja investasi itu sudah breake event point alias balik modal.

Ketika proyek pertambangan akan dimulai, hubungan Indonesia-Belanda memasuki masa genting bahkan mendekati perang. Ways To Respond To A That Lies. Dengan desakan Amerika akhirnya Belanda terpaksa mengalah dan mundur dari Irian Barat. Of The. Dampak dari situasi tersebut, kontrak kerjasama Freeport dengan Belanda akhirnya mentah. Home GCSE. Berbagai cara dicoba oleh Freeport untuk menuntut kontrak mereka namun semua gagal, bahkan presiden Kennedy cenderung memihak pemerintah Indonesia. Of The. Semua berubah bagi Freeport setelah Presiden Kennedy tewas tertembak, 22 November 1963. Mulai Mengobok-obok Indonesia. Salah satu direktur Freeport yang paling bahagia atas perubahan situasi pasca tewasnya Presiden Kennedy adalah Augustus C. The Strategic Management Assistance. “Gus” Long. The Role Of The Conflict. Long inilah pemain utama upaya Freeport mengeruk kekayaan alam di Indonesia.

Long pernah pernah menjadi ketua dewan direktur Texaco, sehingga Long mempunyai dua kepentingan di Indonesia. Are Good Ways That. Selain dengan Freeport, Long juga menghadapi masalah dengan kebijakan kontrak perminyakan Indonesia tahun 1961. The Role Media. Dimana Presiden Soekarno memutuskan 60 persen keuntungan kontrak minyak diserahkan ke Indonesia. Agustus 1965, Long diangkat sebagai anggota dewan penasehat intelijen Presiden AS untuk masalah luar negeri. Home GCSE. Badan inilah yang sangat berpengaruh dalam menyetujui atau menyarankan operasi rahasia di Negara-negara tertentu, termasuk operasi rahasia yang menamatkan kekuasaan Presiden Soekarno dengan meletusnya G-30-S.

Tak ayal lagi, keberhasilan menggulingkan Presiden Soekarno dengan peristiwa G-30-S sebagai pemicunya (yang akhirnya berimbas kepada keuntungan bagi Freeport) adalah didalangi oleh CIA. The Role Of The. Hal ini terbukti dan terungkap dari pengakuan seorang mantan pejabat CIA, Ralph McGehee, yang mengungkapkan bahwa tipu muslihat CIA untuk mengadu domba telah diterapkan di Indonesia. Admission University. Kesaksian McGehee ini makin diperkuat oleh pernyataan Nixon, ketika diwawancarai Duta Besar Green di tahun 1967. Ketika UU No. Of The Media. 1/1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA) disahkan tahun 1967, perusahaan asing yang pertama kali kontraknya ditandatangani Soeharto adalah Freeport. To A Client That. Perusahaan ini sangat canggih bermain di segala lini. Media. Di bawah komando Augustus C. The Strategic Management Assistance. Long, yang dekat dengan pusat kekuasaan di Gedung Putih, tidak hanya Freeport yang mujur, tapi juga Texaco dan perusahaan minyak lainnya. Tahun 1980, Freeport bergabung dengan McMoRan (perusahaan eksplorasi dan pengembangan minyak) yang dinahkodai “Jim Bob” Moffett. Of The. Freeport McMoRan sangat cepat menapak menjadi raksasa dunia, dengan keuntungan diperkirakan lebih dari 1,5 milyar dolar AS/tahun. Seorang eksekutif Freeport, George A. Admission. Mealey dalam bukunya Grasberg menyebut saat ini Freeport McMoRan merupakan tambang tembaga dengan deposit ketiga terbesar di dunia.

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Bangsa asing melalui perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional masuk dengan segala cara untuk dapat melakukan eksploitasi kekayaan Indonesia. The Role Of The Media In International Conflict. Selain melalui sistem politik, mereka juga masuk melalui sistem ekonomi. Melalui mekanisme FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), yaitu investasi langsung luar negeri dimana sebuah perusahaan asing menanamkan modal jangka panjangnya di Indonesia, bangsa asing dapat secara langsung menguasai perusahaan di Indonesia termasuk menguasai kebijakan ekonomi dan hukum di Indonesia. Berikut merupakan praktik-praktik FDI yang lumrah kita temui: Penguasaan saham mayoritas. Writing. Penanaman modal untuk pendirian perusahaan baru. Of The Conflict. Reinvestasi pendapatan perusahaan. Of The Conflict. Penyediaan fasilitas pendanaan dan lisensi penggunaan teknologi oleh induk perusahaan di luar negeri pada anak perusahaan/afiliasi yang berada di Indonesia. The Role In International Conflict. Joint venture dengan perusahaan Indonesia. Dengan mekanisme-mekanisme diatas, perusahaan multinasional melakukan eksploitasi terhadap kekayaan alam dan potensi ekonomis negeri ini, mulai dari pertambangan tembaga dan emas hingga perkebunan kelapa sawit.

Dengan investasi langsung, perusahaan-perusahaan asing tersebut dapat secara langsung mengendalikan manajemen dan produksi perusahaan yang dikuasainya. Tidak dapat dipungkiri, bagi negara kita yang sedang berkembang investasi asing juga memberikan keuntungan karena mampu menutup financing gap yang tidak mampu ditutup oleh Pemerintah. Pharmacy Essay. FDI juga dianggap lebih menguntungkan dibandingkan dengan pinjaman luar negeri. The Role Media Conflict. Banyak pengamat ekonomi menyatakan bahwa dana investasi asing merupakan penyumbang dana terbesar bagi pembangunan. Admission Essay. Investasi asing juga mendorong pertumbuhan, sumber tumbuhnya teknologi, proses produksi, sistem organisasi, dan berbagai keuntungan lainnya. Yang menjadi persoalan, pengaruh asing telah mempengaruhi kebijakan-kebijakan pemerintah dengan sedemikian kuatnya. Media Conflict. Pemerintah banyak membuat regulasi (dan bahkan melanggar regulasi yang telah sebelumnya dibuat) yang menguntungkan investor asing dan mengabaikan kepentingan rakyat. Ways To A. Dengan kekuasaan dan bantuan regulasi dan hukum yang dibuat oleh Pemerintah kita, investor-investor asing dapat secara leluasa mematikan pesaing-pesaing dari perusahaan domestik serta melakukan mobilisasi komoditas dari Indonesia ke negeri mereka. Yang menjadi pertanyaan, bagaimana investor asing mampu mempengaruhi pengambilan kebijakan oleh Pemerintah? Banyak indikasi yang menunjukkan bahwa investor asing memberikan bantuan dana dalam proses penyusunan Undang-undang, bantuan melalui lembaga donor, serta melalui Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) untuk mengkritisi pembuatan Undang-undang tersebut dan menyuarakan kepentingan mereka. Of The In International Conflict. Beberapa produk undang-undang dan peraturan yang nyata-nyata lebih memihak kepentingan asing dibandingkan kepentingan nasional antara lain UU Migas, UU Sumber Daya Air, RUU Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA) dan berbagai peraturan di bidang PMA.

Investasi Uang Panas: Penyebab Rupiah Terpuruk. Selain FDI, bentuk investasi yang lebih memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan bagi negara Indonesia adalah dalam bentuk hot money , yaitu dana-dana investasi jangka pendek dengan mobilitas tinggi yang masuk ke pasar keuangan. The Strategic Management. Teorinya, investor/speculator menanamkan uangnya ke saham, obligasi negara maupun swasta maupun Sertifikat Bank Indonesia (SBI). The Role Of The Media In International Conflict. Hot money sangat likuid sehingga sangat mempengaruhi kondisi perekonomian Indonesia, dimana saat hot money tersebut keluar dari Indonesia, maka secara otomatis runtuhlah nilai mata uang Rupiah. Sejarah pernah menunjukkan betapa negeri ini pernah terguncang akibat hot money . Assistance. Pada tahun 1997, uang panas yang beredar di Indonesia sekitar 36,8 milyar dolar AS, lebih besar dari cadangan devisa yang dimiliki Indonesia, dimana dua pertiga dari jumlah terrsebut dalam bentuk saham dan sisanya dalam bentuk surat utang. The Role Media. Ketika krisis moneter menerpa, banyak spekulator yang menarik uangnya yang berada di Indonesia. Essay Assistance. Jumlah cadangan devisa yang lebih kecil dibandingkan jumlah hot money yang ditarik menyebabkan Pemerintah harus mencari utang ke IMF untuk menutup cadangan devisa. The Role Of The. Akibatnya, nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar pun jatuh sampai menembus angka Rp12.000,-/dolar AS. Saat ini pun sebenarnya perekonomian Indonesia pun rentan akibat uang panas ini.

Data 2006 menunjukkan bahwa jumlah uang panas yang beredar di Indonesia dalam bentuk SBI, SUN dan di pasar modal senilai 24,3 – 28,3 milyar dolar AS. What To Respond To A That To You?. Dapat kita bayangkan apabila dana sebesar itu keluar dari Indonesia secara tiba-tiba maka nilai tukar rupiah akan runtuh dan perekonomian akan ambruk. The Role Media. Secara positif, mengalirnya hot money ke dalam negeri akan meningkatkan cadangan devisa di Bank Indonesia. Admission. Data 2006 menunjukkan bahwa pada akhir 2006, cadangan devisa Indonesia sebesar 42,6 milyar dolar AS. Of The Media In International. Jumlah tersebut termasuk besar, namun kondisi perekonomian Indonesia tetap saja sangat rentan karena hot money senilai 24,3 – 28,3 milyar dolar AS dapat secara tiba-tiba keluar dari Indonesia. The Role Of The. Keadaan berbeda dialami oleh Malaysia, Singapura dan China dimana dana yang masuk ke negara-negara tersebut bukan dalam bentuk hot money , melainkan dalam bentuk FDI sehingga tidak rentan terhadap krisis. Kebijakan moneter Amerika Serikat dan intervensi pasar oleh Bank Indonesia merupakan dua hal yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan yang sangat dinamis terhadap kondisi hot money di Indonesia. The Role In International. Contohnya terjadi pada bulan Juli 2003 dimana Gubernur Bank Sentral Amerika Serikat mengindikasikan prospek ekonomi AS yang terus membaik. Of The. Apabila ekonomi membaik, maka tentu saja nilai dolar As akan menguat.

Mendengar berita ini, investor pun melepaskan uang yang dipegangnya selain dolar AS, antara lain yen, euro dan rupiah, untuk mendapatkan dolar Amerika. The Role Of The Media Conflict. Akibatnya dalam waktu singkat, nilai tukar rupiah anjlok dari Rp8.400 ke Rp8.700 per What to respond client that lies to you?, dolar AS. Of The Media Conflict. Untuk dapat mempertahankan nilai tukar rupiah, Bank Indonesia melakukan intervensi pasar dengan menjual cadangan dolar dan membeli rupiah. GCSE Help?. Yang menjadi masalah, kemampuan intervensi pasar BI ini pun sangat terbatas. Kesimpulan yang dapat kita ambil, Indonesia berada dalam kondisi yang sangat rentan terhadap permainan dari investor asing.

Ini diakibatkan oleh keikutsertaan Indonesia dalam pasar bebas, sedangkan ketahanan diri yang rendah serta ketergantungan asing yang sangat tinggi. Of The Media In International. Dalam kondisi ini, sangatlah tidak mungkin untuk mencegah aliran dana asing ke Indonesia. Home Education GCSE Help?. Yang bisa dilakukan hanyalah memperbaiki kondisi ekonomi agar lebih kompetitif, kuat dan lebih efisien dibandingkan negara lain. Buku The Confession of The Role Media in International, An Economic Hit Man (John Perkins) menguraikan cara kerja organisasi seperti IMF, Bank Dunia, dan sejumlah bank internasional yang menggunakan data ilmiah dan pendekatan kultural memberi informasi kepada para kepala negara dunia ketiga tentang angka pertumbuhan ekonomi yang optimistik, dengan tujuan agar negara-negara tersebut mau memperbesar utang luar negeri. Japan Risk Analysis Assignment. Makin besar utang luar negeri, makin lemah daya tawar suatu negara terhadap hegemoni dan praktik imperialisme negara adidaya. The Role Media. Akibatnya, negara pengutang tak bisa mengelak segala permintaan dari negara donor.

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Dalam bab ini dinyatakan empat indikator utama masuknya neoliberalisme ekonomi yaitu: Pemerintah menghapuskan berbagai subsidi dan menyerahkan harga-harga bidang strategis ke mekanisme pasar; Privatisasi BUMN dengan menjualnya ke pihak swasta, baik nasional maupun asing; Nilai kurs rupiah diambangkan secara bebas (floating rate) sesuai mekanisme pasar; Indonesia dituntut komitmennya terhadap WTO dan GATT. Sejumlah bank swasta nasional kini telah dikuasai asing, misalnya BCA, Bank Niaga, BII, Bank Haga, Bank Swadesi, dan lain-lain. Home Help?. Akibatnya, mereka memiliki kekuatan untuk mendominasi perekonomian nasional Indonesia. Of The Media. Sebagai contoh, dana masyarakat yang telah disedot pada periode per Management Cycle essay, Agustus 2006 mencapai Rp500,9 triliun, lebih besar dari bank pemerintah yang hanya mencapai Rp440,2 triliun. Media In International. Bank swasta asing dinilai kurang memperhatikan sektor UKM, terlihat dari kucuran kredit yang hanya sebesar 6,8% dari total kredit yang disalurkan. Home GCSE Help?. Dari sini dikatakan bahwa industri perbankan yang merupakan jantung perekonomian telah diserahkan kepada negara asing. Industri telekomunikasi di Indonesia, yang dalam konteks ini adalah operator seluler, telah dikuasai pihak asing. Of The In International Conflict. Pada penghujung tahun 2002, 41,94% saham pemerintah di Indosat dijual pada ST Telemedia Pte Ltd, Singapura. Japan Country Analysis. 35% saham Telkomsel telah dimiliki SingTel.

Sekitar 42% saham Indosat dimiliki SingTel. The Role Media Conflict. Excelcomindo Pratama dikuasai Telecom Malaysia. Masuknya investor asing adalah sesuatu yang tak bisa dicegah karena bisnis telekomunikasi tidak mengenal batas wilayah negara. The Role Of The Conflict. Infrastruktur telekomunikasi menjadi aset yang sangat penting bagi terjaminnya keamanan informasi dan rahasia negara. Of The Media In International Conflict. Jika ini digenggam negara lain, tentu keterjaminan, keamanan dan kelancaran informasi menjadi taruhannya. Berdasarkan data INSA tahun 2005, kegiatan ekspor impor yang dilakukan kapal asing sebanyak 96,59% dan angkutan kargo dalam negeri yang dilayani kapal asing sebesar 46,8%.

Menurut buku ini, ini menunjukkan adanya dominasi asing di bidang pelayaran di Indonesia. Are Good To Respond To A Wedding Client That Lies. Hal ini dikatakan sebagai akibat dari lemahnya hukum yang dibuat pemerintah. Beberapa peraturan yang mendukung pernyataan tersebut adalah sebagai berikut: Inpres Nomor 4 Tahun 1985. Media In International Conflict. Inpres ini menggalakkan ekspor nonmigas namun mematikan sektor pelayaran nasional karena memperbolehkan kapal asing dari mana pun masuk dan bersandar selama membantu kelancaran ekspor nasional. Country Assignment. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 Tahun 1999 tentang Angkutan di Perairan, yang mengharuskan perusahaan pelayaran memiliki kapal. The Role Of The In International. Hal ini susah dilakukan karena pemerintah tidak mengeluarkan kebijakan yang mempermudah kredit perbankan bagi industri pelayaran untuk memperbaharui kapal, dan harga kapal pun tidak murah. Writing University. Inpres Nomor 5 Tahun 2005 tentang Pemberdayaan Industri Pelayaran Nasional. The Role Media. Inpres ini menyebutkan muatan pelayaran antarpulau di dalam negeri wajib diangkut dengan kapal berbendera Indonesia dan dioperasikan oleh perusahaan pelayaran nasional. Of The Media Conflict. Terdapat pertanyaan berapa lama yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun industri kapal nasional tanpa kemudahan pembiayaan. Azas ini menyatakan bahwa pengangkutan muatan domestik hanya oleh kapal berbendera milik negara tersebut.

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Garuda Indonesia termasuk kategori maskapai terlemah di Asia. Conflict. Hal ini diperkuat lagi dengan kinerja keuangan yang negatif, sehingga ada kemungkinan untuk diprivatisasi. The Strategic Essay. Banyak pihak asing yang telah berminat untuk menguasai saham Garuda, ini berarti ada potensi keuntungan yang dapat diperoleh dari Garuda. The Role Of The Media In International. Kerugian yang dialami Garuda selama ini bisa jadi disebabkan adanya kesalahan dalam manajemen, sehingga keputusan untuk menjual saham Garuda ke pihak asing dirasa bukan solusi yang tepat. Pada tahun 2010 diprediksikan akan terjadi kekacauan yaitu berupa krisis listrik yang terjadi di Jawa dan Bali. Pharmacy School. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena ketidakbecusan Pemerintah dalam menata pembangunan khususnya dalam bidang ketenagalistikan. Of The Media Conflict. Berdasarkan data, PLN diperkirakan tidak sanggup untuk melayani permintaan pasokan listrik pada tahun 2010. Media In International. Akibatnya, PLN akan melakukan penjatahan suplai listrik secara bergilir.

Kekacauan pengelolaan kelistrikan mulai terjadi pada tahun 1992 ketika pihak swasta dilibatkan dalam bisnis penyediaan listrik. Of The In International Conflict. Keppres No. Home Education GCSE. 37 Tahun 1992 dijadikan alasan untuk mengantisipasi kekurangan pasokan listrik bagi masyarakat. Media In International Conflict. Namun, hal ini dimanfaatkan oleh beberapa oknum untuk keuntungan pribadi, dengan mark up setinggi-tingginya nilai proyek tersebut. What To Respond Wedding Client That Lies. Perbuatan busuk ini baru terkuak setelah Orde Baru runtuh berkat temuan dari tim pengkaji ulang berbagai proyek listrik di tanah air. Setelah Keppres No. The Role. 37 Tahun 1992, PLN bekerja sama dengan pihak swasta lewat PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) yang mengharuskan PLN membeli 100 % listrik yang dijual swasta.

Harga jual listrik swasta jauh lebih mahal dari yang dijual PLN ke masyarakat, sehingga menyebabkan kerugian bagi negara. Essay. Menurut Kompas, perusahaan-perusahaan swasta tersebut ternyata dimiliki oleh para pengusaha yang dekat dengan penguasa Orde Baru saat itu, seperti Bob Hasan, Sigit Soeharto, Bambang Triatmodjo dan lain sebagainya. Of The In International Conflict. Kewajiban PLN untuk membeli listrik dari swasta ini mencapai 133,5 milyar dollar AS dan nilai itu belum termasuk kerugian akibat praktik korupsi pada tubuh PLN serta kerugian akibat nilai rupiah yang terdepresiasi terhadap dollar AS. Seharusnya setelah praktik mark up atas prolyek listrik tersebut terbongkar, penegakan hukum harus dilaksanakan. Management Cycle Essay. Namun, yang terjadi hanya dilakukan renegosiasi yang masih membebankan PLN. Media. Hal ini terlihat pada klausul pembelian take or pay yang prinsipnya ada dua jenis pembelian, yaitu pembelian kapasitas dalam bentuk megawatt dan pembelian energi dalam bentuk kWh. The Strategic Management Cycle Essay. Klausul ini menyebabkan PLN harus membayar meskipun tidak menggunakan listrik dari swasta. Kekacauan ini terus diperparah dengan terbitnya UU No. Of The Conflict. 20 Tahun 2002 tentang ketenagalistrikan, yang tujuannya agar listrik bisa lebih cepat menjangkau wilayah Indonesia. Home Help?. Hal ini mengubah pandangan listrik dari obyek infrastruktur menjadi komoditas, sehingga profit merupakan bagian terpenting dalam pengembangannya.

Kita sebagai rakyat hanya bisa berharap agar krisis listrik dapat segera teratasi dengan tidak membebani rakyat. Keberadaan hukum adat perlu dipertanyakan karena banyak produk hukum pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam (SDA) justru bertolak belakang dengan hukum adat dan menciptakan kemiskinan masyarakat setempat. In International Conflict. Produk-produk hukum dalam pemanfaatan SDA, seperti pertambangan, perminyakan, kehutanan, pertanahan dan sebagainya menyebabkan masyarakat setempat beserta hukum adatnya semakin terpinggirkan. Management Cycle. Bahkan hukum tersebut dilakukan bersifat represif, sehingga menyebabkan pemiskinan secara sistematis terhadap masyarakat adat. Kehancuran sistematis bagi masyarakat beserta hukum adatnya mulai terjadi pada masa Orde Baru. The Role Of The Media. Produk hukum yang dihasilkan semakin terasanya dominasi kekuasaan Pemerintah dan menghancurkan hak-hak masyarakat adat.

Masyarakat yang telah sekian lama menempati tanah miliknya, harus mengalami penggusuran dan perampasan hak dengan mengatasnamakan UU hanya demi kepentingan penguasa pada saat itu. Dalam penggolongan kriteria hutan dinyatakan bahwa masyarakat adat dinyatakan tidak memiliki tanah tetapi hanya menguasai dan memanfaatkan tanah berdasarkan hak ulayat. The Strategic Assistance. Namun semakin hari hak masyarakat adat untuk menguasai dan memanfaatkan tanah tersebut juga dirampas baik oleh pihak perusahaan swasta asing maupun lokal dengan dalih bahwa tanah tersebut milik mereka. The Role Of The In International. Dan ketika masyarakat adat ingin mengambilnya, maka muncullah tuduhan penebang dan penambang ilegal. Masyarakat adat sering berada pada dualisme hukum. The Role Of The In International. Sebagai masyarakat adat mereka harus menaati Hukum Adat dan sebagai warga negara Indonesia mereka harus menaati Hukum Nasional.

Hal inilah yang sering menyebabkan tombulnya konflik dalam masyarakat. Berdasarkan Pasal 33 ayat 3 UUD 1945, seharusnya konsep hak menguasai negara berarti negara “bukanlah pemilik” dari kekayaan yang terkandung di tanah air. The Role Media In International. Akan tetapi “negara diberikan hak dari rakyat untuk menguasai kekayaan alam” demi kemamkmuran rakyat. Japan Country Risk Assignment. Dengan kata lain, masyarakat harus memberikan ijin terlenih dahulu kepada pihak pengusaha yang akan melaksanakan kegiatan eksplorasi di wilayah adatnya. Eksistensi Hukum Adat.

Saat penjajahan Belanda, keberadaan hukum adat selalu bertentangan dengan kepentingan penjajajah Hindia Belanda. Conflict. Namun para pemimpin dan tokoh bangsa ini telah menyadarinya dengan mencetuskan Soempah Pemoeda 1928. Help?. Dan setelah merdeka, para pemimpin bangsa kita pun menghormati hak-hak masyarakat adat yang diaku pada Pasal 18 UUD 1945 beserta Penjelasan-nya. The Role Of The Media In International. Hak-hak masyarakat asli (indegenous people rights) ini juga diakui oleh PBB. The Strategic Assistance. Lalu, Pasal 14 Piagam Hak Asasi Manusia yang menjadi bagian integral Ketetapan MPR No. In International. XVII/MPR/1998 yang menyatakan bahwa hak atas tanah ulayat dilindungi oleh negara. Pharmacy Essay. Begitu pula Pasal 14 Konvensi ILO Nomor 169 yang mengatakan bahwa hak kepemilikan dan pemanfaatan atas tanah oleh masyarakat adat harus diakui negara. Beberapa produk hukum Orde Lama seperti UU No. Of The Media In International. 5 Tahun 1960 tentang Pokok-Pokok Agraria (UUPA) memiliki pasal-pasal yang mengakui ketentuan hukum adat. Home Education GCSE Help?. Begitu juga dalam bidang sumber daya hutan melalui PP No. Media In International. 64 tahun 1957 tentang desentralisasi di bidang kehutanan.

Namun pada masa Orde Baru, PP ini dihapus melalui PP No. Pharmacy. 21 tahun 1970 yang menghilangkan sama sekali hak-hak masyarakat. In International. Banyak produk hukum dari masa Orde Baru lainnya yang secara umum menghasilkan eksploitasi besar-besaran terhadap SDA dan sepenuhnya dinikmati perusahaan pengelola. The Strategic Management Cycle Essay Assistance. Produk-produk hukum ini pun tidak jauh berbeda dengan UU pada masa penjajahan Belanda dulu. Seharusnya dalam produk-produk hukum tersebut, para penguasa harus memperhatikan kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitar dan menambah prasyarat-prasyarat lain bagi perusahaan yang diberikan ijn serta memperhatikan dampak ekologi bagi lingkungan sekitar. Pertambangan dan perminyakan Indonesia merupakan bidang yang paling digarap oleh asing dengan 85,4 % dari 137 konsensi pengelolaan lapangan migas.

Menurut data BP Migas, hanya 20 perusahaan migas nasional yang saat ini mengelola ladang migas di Indonesia. Of The Conflict. Bahkan ada kemungkinan bahwa dengan berbagai kepemilikan saham, pihak asing menguasai 100 % ladang migas di Indonesia. Pada masa Orde Baru, hampir semua ladang minyak dikuasai perusahaan minyak asing raksasa. Admission Essay University. Namun pada zaman sekarang ini, sektor industri hilir migas pun diberikan kepada perusahaan swasta baik asing maupun lokal. Of The Media Conflict. Hasilnya, bermunculanlah pompa-pompa bensin merk asing, seperti Shell, Petronas, Total dan sebagainya. What Are Good Ways To Respond That Lies. Hal ini akan berdampak pada naiknya harga BBM akibat dicabutnya subsidi BBM. Produksi migas yang dihasilkan dari berbagai blok migas sebagian besar diekspor hanya untuk melipatgandakan devisa negara. Conflict. Dan hal ini menyebabkan krisis energi yang merugikan rakyat. Home. Di sisi lain, telah banyak kerugian yang terjadi akibat menyerahkan pengelolaan pertambangan dan migas ke pihak asing seperti penambangan emas dan tembaga oleh PT. Of The Conflict. Freeport. The Role Media In International Conflict. Pertaminapun tidak dipercaya untuk mengelola blok-blok migas seperti di Cepu.

Nasib serupa juga dialami dalam bidang batubara, yang pengelolaanya masih didominasi oleh pihak swasta seperti Bumi Resources Tbk. The Role Of The Media In International Conflict. Salah satu alasan mengapa pihak asing yang banyak menguasai penambangan dan perminyakan di Indonesia adalah dikarenakan teknologinya yang mahal. What To Respond To A Client That Lies To You?. Hal ini menjadi kurang relevan jika dibandingkan dengan masa pengelolaan oleh pihak asing. Neoliberalisme Pengelolaan Migas. Dulu, Petronas pernah belajar dari Pertamina tentang konsep pengelolaan migasnya. In International Conflict. Namun sekarang ini, Petronas lebih maju dari Pertamina. Home Education GCSE Help?. Hal ini disebabkan Pertamina yang dikelola secara korup. The Role Of The. Lebih parahnya lagi, bukan korupsinya yang diberantas, akan tetapi aturan main atau sistem dasarnya yang diganti. School Essay. Di era Megawati melalui UU Migas No.

22 Tahun 2001, pengelolaan dan penguasaan migas dan produk BBM berubah drastis. Media Conflict. Pertamina tidak lagi memegang Kuasa Usaha Pertambangan termasuk mengontrol para kontraktor Kontrak Production Sharing. Cycle Essay. Bahkan saham Pertamina bisa dijual dan dimiliki siapa saja. UU Migas menyebabkan negara tidak lagi memiliki prasarana yang dapat menguasai dan memiliki sumber daya migas dan produk BBM. The Role Of The In International Conflict. Hal ini sangat bertentangan dengan Pasal 33 UUD 1945. Media Conflict. Liberalisasi pun semakin masuk dalam pengelolaan migas di Indonesia sehingga dalam penentuan harga BBM ditentukan berdasarkan harga pasar. Of The Media In International Conflict. Salah satu cara masuknya neoliberalisme adalah dengan menghancurkan pengelolaan BUMN-BUMN strategis dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dengan cara memprivatisasinya. The Strategic Cycle Essay. Agen-agen asing seperti IGGI dan IMF yang didukung AS serta negara-negara pendonor sangat berperan dalam menciptakan neoliberalisme di Indonesia. Of The Conflict. Hal ini ditambah lagi dengan bantuan wakil rakyat di DPR dalam mengesahkan Undang-undang yang pro GCSE neoliberalisme. Nasionalisasi Migas Keberanian Morales. Presiden Bolivia Evo Morales mengeluarkan dekrit nasional sektor energi Bolivia dan mengatakan bahwa penjarahan SDA oleh perusahaan-perusahaan asing telah berakhir.

Pengelolaan SDA di Bolivia sebenarnya sama dengan di Indonesia. The Role Of The Media. Namun yang membedakannya adalah Bolivia berani menasionalisasikan seluruh perusahaan migas asing. Morales memulai langkahnya dengan 2 cara. Pertama, menasionalisasikan perusahaan migas asing; Kedua, melakukan revolusi lahan. Home Help?. Pemerintah Bolivia menetapkan batas waktu 6 bulan kepada perusahaan-perusahaan asing untuk menegosiasi ulang kontrak-kontrak mereka dengan perusahaan minyak nasional Bolivia. Perusahaan milik negara / YPFB harus emnjadi pemegang saham mayoritas dalam perusahaan-perusahaan energi yang beroperasi di Bolivia. Langkah Morales ini dikecam oleh pihak asing dan mereka mengatakan bahwa terjadi kemunduran ekonomi di Bolivia. The Role Media In International. Hal ini berbeda dengan yang terjadi di Indonesia, dimana justru para Pemerintah dan pengamat yang mengatakan hal itu untuk membodohi rakyatnya sendiri. Revolusi lahan dilakukan dengan cara dimana negara menyerahkan seperlima lahan negara kepada petani-petani miskin di Bolivia.

Kebijakan redistribusi lahan ini ditargetkan akan mendistribusikan lahan publik seluas 200.000 km 2 dalam 5 tahun. Admission Essay University. Pemerintah juga akan meredistribusi lahan-lahan pribadi yang tidak produktif, diperoleh secara ilegal, atau digunakan untuk spekulasi. The Role Of The In International. Apakah indonesia akan mengikuti langkah Bolivia tersebut? UU Mineral dan Batubara yang Banci. Dengan adanya UU Minerba No. The Strategic Management. 4 Tahun 2009, posisi hukum Negara menjadi lebih terhormat dan diakui kedaulatannya, dimana Pemerintah berdiri sejajar dengan pengusaha dan Pemerintah berkedudukan sebagai pemberi izin usaha pertambangan.

UU Minerba ini mengakhiri Kontrak Karya, Perjanjian Karya Pengusahaan Pertambangan Batubara dan Kuasa Pertambangan. Of The In International. Namun dalam beberapa Pasal dalam UU Minerba ini masih ada upaya melindungi kepentingan asing dalam mengelola SDA. Seharusnya UU Minerba ini bisa mengembalikan dan menyelamatkan SD mineral Indonesia, dengan cara membatalkan kontrak-kontrak yang telah sangat merugikan negara. Are Good Ways To A Wedding Client Lies. Sayangnya, Menteri ESDM waktu itu Purnomo Yusgiantoro menyatakan bahwa UU ini tidak akan membatalkan KK pertambangan yang telah diteken Pemerintah dengan alasan menghormati hukum. The Role In International. KK hanya bisa dibatalkan dengan tiga alasan. The Strategic Essay Assistance. Pertama, jika terjadi pelanggaran pidana. In International Conflict. Kedua, jika pengusaha pertambangan tidak menaati pasal-pasal yang ada dalam kontrak. The Role Media In International Conflict. Dan ketiga, kedua belah pihak sepakat untuk memutuskan kontrak tersebut. Conflict. Hal ini membuktikan posisi Pemerintah yang lemah dalam mengatur pengelolaan SDA untuk kepentingan bangsa. Are Good To Respond Wedding That. Kesimpulannya, UU Minerba yang sekarang tidak akan banyak mengubah sistem pengelolaan pertambangan kita.

BUMN ITU (SEHARUSNYA) BOLEH RUGI, ASAL BUKAN KARENA DIKORUPSI. Sudah sering terdengar bahwa BUMN (seperti PLN, PT KAI, PDAM, TELKOM dll) menderita kerugian, maka pemerintah dibebani subsidi untuk perusahaan-perusahaan itu. The Role Media. Yang menjadi pertanyaan adalah apakah salah kalau BUMN itu merugi sedangkan tujuan dibentuknya BUMN itu adalah untuk menyediakan kebutuhan rakyat dengan harga murah? Bukan keuntungan yang menjadi prioritas utama tetapi pemenuhan kebutuhan rakyat dengan harga yang terjangkau sesuai dengan semangat pasal 33 UUD 1945. Langkah pemerintah yang kemudian memprivatisasi BUMN sesungguhnya sangatlah merugikan. The Strategic Management. Dengan alasan beratnya beban subsidi pemerintah telah mengorbankan kepentingan rakyat. The Role Of The Media. Bisa kita lihat pada kenaikan harga BBM, tarif listrik, air, transportasi dll semakin membebani rakyat.

Pemerintah seharusnya melakukan perbaikan manajemen agar BUMN tidak lagi dijalankan dengan korup, bukan dengan menjual BUMN ini kepada pihak swasta. LECEHKAN HUKUM DEMI INVESTOR ASING. Faktor-faktor penghalang jika terjadi pengajuan judicial review terhadap PP No. Pharmacy. 20 Tahun 1994: Pemerintah berusaha menggagalkan (secara politik); Campur tangan kekuatan asing (secara ekonomi); Putusan hakim tidak populer. Akibatnya, jika sampai PP No. Of The. 20 Tahun 1994 tidak berlaku, akan ada banyak opini bahwa hal itu tidak mendukung pembangunan ekonomi nasional karena sulit masuknya investor asing.Banyak produk hukum kita yang saling bertentangan (kontroversial) dalam investasi asing.

Contohnya, antara UUD 1945 pasal 33, UU No. Cycle Essay Assistance. 1 Tahun 1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing, dan UU No. Of The. 6 Tahun 1968 tentang Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri. UUD 1945 pasal 33 ayat (2) menyatakan bahwa cabang-cabang produksi yang penting bagi negara dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara. Japan Analysis Assignment. Ayat (3) menyatakan bahwa bumi dan air dan kekayaan alam yang terkandung di dalamnya dikuasai oleh negara dan dipergunakan untuk sebesar-besar kemakmuran rakyat. Dalam UU No. Media. 1 Tahun 1967 pasal 6 ayat (1) dinyatakan beberapa bidang usaha yang tertutup bagi penanaman modal asing secara penguasaan penuh, antara lain: pelabuhan, produksi, transmisi dan distribusi tenaga listrik untuk umum, telekomunikasi, pelayaran, penerbangan, air minum, kereta api umum, pembangkitan tenaga atom dan media massa. The Role Media. Anehnya, sektor pertambangan tidak tergolong dalam klasifikasi di atas karena dimungkinkannya kerja sama dengan pemerintah atas dasar kontrak karya. The Role Of The Media In International. Ternyata hal ini untuk memuluskan masuknya Freeport ke Papua. UU No.

6 Tahun 1968 pasal 3 ayat (1) menyatakan bahwa perusahaan nasional adalah perusahaan yang sekurang-kurangnya 51% daripada modal dalam negeri yang ditanam di dalamnya dimiliki oleh negara dan/atau swasta nasional. Japan Country Assignment. PP No. The Role Media. 20 Tahun 1994 menjamin investor asing boleh memiliki hingga 95% saham perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang pelabuhan, produksi, transmisi dan distribusi tenaga listrik untuk umum, telekomunikasi, pelayaran, penerbangan, air minum, kereta api, pembangkit tenaga nuklir dan media massa. Jelas-jelas ketiga produk hukum di atas saing bertentangan. Risk. Dalam bidang yang penting bagi negara dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak, persentase maksimal kepemilikan saham asing semakin meningkat: 5% (UU No.

1 Tahun 1967), 49% (UU No. The Role Of The Media In International Conflict. 6 Tahun 1968), dan menjadi 95% (PP No. Risk Assignment. 20 Tahun 1994). Ada hal lain yang lebih memprihatinkan. Of The Media In International Conflict. Pemerintah Indonesia melalui International Infrastructure Summit (17 Januari 2005) dan BUMN Summit (25-26 Januari 2005) memutuskan untuk membuka investor asing masuk dalam proyek infrastruktur di Indonesia.

Dalam BUMN Summit juga dinyatakan bahwa seluruh BUMN akan diprivatisasi. Pharmacy Essay. Jadi, barang dan jasa publik (yang penting bagi negara dan menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak) akan menjadi barang komersial dengan fokus utama bisnis ( profit oriented ). PENYIMPANGAN KONSTITUSI: PASAL 33 UUD 1945. Pasal 33 UUD 1945 menyiratkan adanya sistem ekonomi sosialis atau sistem berbasis kerakyatan. The Role Media In International Conflict. Hal ini diperkuat dengan amandemen keempat dengan dicantumkannya ketentuan perekonomian nasional yang diselenggarakan berdasar atas demokrasi ekonomi. Of The Media Conflict. Namun, dalam praktiknya, belum ada implementasi dari pasal 33 UUD 1945. Berikut ini penjabaran pasal 33 UUD 1945: Kegiatan ekonomi berdasar atas rasa kebersaman; Adanya semangat kekeluargaan yang saling menunjang dan menguntungkan antarpelaku ekonomi; Hal-hal yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara dan dipergunakan untuk sebesar-besar kemakmuran rakyat; Penguasaan negara tersebut dilakukan melalui peraturan hukum; Tidak ada tempat untuk liberalisme. Pasal 33 UUD 1945 menjamin kepentingan rakyat dengan menciptakan kemakmuran dan kepastian penghidupan yang layak dan tidak menciptakan penindasan dan penghisapan ( exploitation d’lomme parlon ). The Role Of The Media In International Conflict. Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta menyatakan untuk mengimplementasikan hal tersebut, diperlukan ekonomi berencana ( planned economy ) atau perencanaan terpusat. Media In International Conflict. Keperluan hidup yang vital, seperti sandang, pangan, papan, pendidikan, dan kesehatan mendapat prioritas utama dalam perencanaan perekonomian nasional.

Rakyat juga harus mendapat air, listrik, gas, dan BBM yang cukup dan murah karena barang-barang tersebut penting bagi rakyat. Of The Media In International. Perusahaan transportasi juga harus berfokus pada pelayanan keperluan masyarakat, tidak profit oriented . Kerja sama ekonomi seharusnya dilakukan dengan cara bagi hasil ( production sharing ) antara Pemerintah Pusat, Pemerintah Daerah, Koperasi, Swasta Nasional dan Asing. Admission University. Proyek-proyek didanai dari kredit luar negeri, sedangkan pembayarannya dilakukan dengan sebagian hasil dari proyek tersebut. The Role. Kepemilikan dan pimpinan harus tetap ada di tangan pihak Indonesia. Of The Conflict. Barang impor seharusnya hanya menjadi pelengkap produksi domestik. The Role Of The In International Conflict. Walaupun demikian, ekspor dan impor harus berada pada hubungan yang seimbang, artinya ekspor diperlukan untuk membayar impor.

Seperti telah dikemukakan di atas, pasal 33 UUD 1945 belum mampu diimplementasikan. Essay. Bahkan, dapat dikatakan baru sebatas normatif. In International Conflict. Banyak cabang produksi yang vital dikelola oleh swasta atau investor asing. The Strategic Essay. Freeport, ExxonMobil, Newmont adalah contohnya. Dalam berbagai segi, pengelolaan ekonomi kita sekarang ini cenderung liberal. The Role Media In International. Bahkan, Indonesia dianggap sebagai negara paling liberal di antara negara-negara liberal. Pharmacy Admission Essay. Hal yang ironis, di satu sisi kita tetap mempertahankan pasal 33 UUD 1945, namun di sisi lain, produk hukum di bawahnya justru menyimpang.

Pada tahun 1994 terjadi krisis ekonomi yang melanda Amerika Latin. The Role Of The Media. Untuk mengatasinya, digulirkan suatu rekomendasi formula 10 elemen yang dinamakan Washington Consensus, antara lain: Disiplin fiskal, menjaga anggaran agar tetap surplus; Belanja APBN diprioritaskan untuk memperbaiki pendistribusi pendapatan; Reformasi sektor perpajakan; Liberalisasi sektor finansial; Pertimbangan daya saing dan kredibilitas dalam penentuan kurs mata uang; Liberalisasi perdagangan; Tidak ada diskriminasi investasi asing; Privatisasi BUMN; Deregulasi atau penghilangan segala restriksi perusahaan baru yang hendak masuk pasar; Perlindungan hak cipta ( property right ). Kesepuluh pilar di atas dapat dipersempit lagi menjadi tiga poin utama: (1) kebijakan fiskal yang disiplin dan konservatif; (2) privatisasi BUMN; (3) liberalisasi pasar. Berbagai perdebatan akan pro-kontra neoliberalisme tampaknya mengambil Washington Consensus tersebut sebagai tolok ukur. The Role Media In International Conflict. Contoh yang nyata: privatisasi BUMN. Masalahnya, apakah dengan sistem neoliberalisme, rakyat menjadi makmur dan tidak perlu terjadi krisis ekonomi? Korea Selatan mungkin kelihatan berhasil dengan sistem neoliberalismenya, namun ada campur tangan Amerika Serikat untuk menghadapi Korea Utara dan Cina. The Role Media. Amerika Serikat memberikan bantuan dan perhatian yang besar untuk menumbuhkan perekonomian Korea Selatan.

Bagaimana dengan Indonesia? Dengan sistem neoliberalisme, siapa yang akan diuntungkan atau menjadi makmur: rakyat, asing, atau sekelompok pelaku ekonomi tertentu? Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan. Ringkasan buku ini memperlihatkan bahwa bangsa sudah terjajah secara lebih sistimatis,daripada apa yang terjadi pada zaman belenda maupun jepang,sudah masuk sampai kehulu hati dulu mungkin baru bagian badanya saja.Sekarang malah sudah merasuk jauh kedalam dan sangat sulit untuk di ubah seperti penyakiy kronis. Bajingan para kelompok negara maju itu artinya…mereka bullshit….mmberitakan negara mrk kaya raya katanya…. Essay. hua…ha..ha..ha…