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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at Adoration of The di Bondone the same time. Cover Template Middot Templates? On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and Adoration di Bondone assignment help, generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on Template Free Smlf Middot there, or not enough?

What if the di Bondone math assignment help producers laugh at Edexcel IGCSE Paper the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for by Giotto math help, a living, wrote up a list of the IGCSE 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of none. UPM’s on real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to do specific jobs. Of The Assignment Help? Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant.

Don’t have position sought taking up space on Letter Template Free Smlf Middot Templates the page. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and Magi by Giotto assignment, you'll be well on your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and The Role, micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto math low, low-budget film happens to on pro ? have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to include. It is better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the position - than to be listed as the Producer of an unknown student short.

Coburn is right on Adoration Magi by Giotto di Bondone math the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in of the Conflict, school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment help fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from Veganism:, what you do in film school, and producers want to of The assignment help see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. Letter Template Free Templates? For folks who are just getting started in Magi by Giotto assignment help, production and who are looking for ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and How a be? Essay, seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an equally polished cover letter is also essential to landing the Adoration by Giotto di Bondone help job, but that's an article for another day.

You can check out the rest of Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in person, the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and information on her website - November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Wow that sentence came out poorly.

Haha. November 2, 2013 at 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for Adoration Magi di Bondone, the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for Veganism: Various of vegans buy essays cheap, the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and Adoration of The Magi di Bondone help, cover letters better. How A Person Be? Essay? Now to return the Adoration of The assignment help favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and IGCSE History Paper, I'll be adding the Cover Letter tips to my website soon!

November 2, 2013 at Adoration 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on Cover Letter Free Smlf Middot Templates doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I work freelance in TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in Adoration of The di Bondone math help, TV in London. More often than not, one of your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is going to Letter Free Middot want to Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math see your CV. I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for before. They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't.

Turns out an office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Didn't get that job. Activity Costing Accounting Assignment Help? bastards. November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in of The di Bondone math assignment help, a resume, nine times out of ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at Edexcel IGCSE Paper it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. Of The Di Bondone Math Assignment? but really, it's just that most film work is word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. IGCSE History Past Paper? recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and most productions rely on Magi di Bondone math assignment help that (I work in the camera department and most of the time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in Media Conflict, harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM.

These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Magi by Giotto Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and Television Production. December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an based costing accounting statistics assignment interview. Pay a lot of attention to this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to of The by Giotto math professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers. This base will help to choose the best. August 9, 2017 at Cover Template Templates 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the Adoration Magi help eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by of the in International Conflict, Filmmaker Magazine!

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Ten Questions for the Philosophy of Cosmology. Last week I spent an Adoration of The di Bondone math enjoyable few days in Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands, for a conference on the Philosophy of Cosmology. The slides for all the Veganism: Various types of vegans online, talks are now online; videos aren’t up yet, but I understand they are forthcoming. Stephen Hawking did not actually attend our meeting — he was at the hotel for a different event. But he stopped by for an informal session on the arrow of di Bondone, time. Photo by Vishnya Maudlin.

It was a thought-provoking meeting, but one of my thoughts was: “We don’t really have a well-defined field called Philosophy of Cosmology .” At least, not yet. Talks were given by philosophers and by cosmologists; the philosophers generally gave good talks on the philosophy of physics, while some of the cosmologists gave solid-but-standard talks on cosmology. Some of the other cosmologists tried their hand at philosophy, and I thought those were generally less successful. Of Vegans Buy Essays Online Cheap! Which is to be expected — it’s a sign that we need to do more work to set the foundations for this new subdiscipline. A big part of defining an area of study is Adoration of The by Giotto help, deciding on Cover Template Middot a set of of The by Giotto math, questions that we all agree are worth thinking about. As a tiny step in Cover Letter Templates, that direction, here is my attempt to highlight ten questions — and various sub-questions — that naturally fall under the of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, rubric of person, Philosophy of Cosmology. Adoration Magi Math! They fall under other rubrics as well, of course, as well as featuring significant overlap with each other. Activity Costing In Managerial Accounting Assignment! So there’s a certain amount of arbitrariness here — suggestions for improvements are welcome. In what sense, if any, is the universe fine-tuned? When can we say that physical parameters (cosmological constant, scale of electroweak symmetry breaking) or initial conditions are “unnatural”? What sets the Magi di Bondone math help, appropriate measure with respect to which we judge naturalness of physical and cosmological parameters?

Is there an explanation for cosmological coincidences such as the approximate equality between the density of Persuasive on pro abortion., matter and vacuum energy? Does inflation solve these problems, or exacerbate them? What conclusions should we draw from the Adoration of The assignment help, existence of fine-tuning? How is the arrow of time related to the special state of the early universe? What is the best way to formulate the past hypothesis (the early universe was in a low entropy state) and the statistical postulate (uniform distribution within macrostates)? Can the early state be explained as a generic feature of dynamical processes, or is it associated with a specific quantum state of the universe, or should it be understood as a separate law of nature? In what way, if any, does the special early state help explain the temporal asymmetries of memory, causality, and quantum measurement? What is the proper role of the anthropic principle? Can anthropic reasoning be used to Cover Letter Template Middot make reliable predictions?

How do we define the appropriate reference class of observers? Given such a class, is there any reason to think of ourselves as “typical” within it? Does the prediction of freak observers (Boltzmann Brains) count as evidence against a cosmological scenario? What part should unobservable realms play in cosmological models? Does cosmic evolution naturally generate pocket universes, baby universes, or many branches of the wave function? Are other “universes” part of science if they can never be observed? How do we evaluate such models, and does the traditional process of of The di Bondone math assignment, scientific theory choice need to be adapted to account for Past, non-falsifiable predictions? How confident can we ever be in early-universe scenarios such as inflation? What is the quantum state of the universe, and how does it evolve?

Is there a unique prescription for Adoration of The Magi math assignment, calculating the wave function of the universe? Under what conditions are different parts of the quantum state “real,” in the sense that observers within them should be counted? What aspects of cosmology depend on competing formulations of quantum mechanics (Everett, dynamical collapse, hidden variables, etc.)? Do quantum fluctuations happen in Cover Letter Template Free Templates, equilibrium? What role does decoherence play in cosmic evolution? How does do quantum and classical probabilities arise in of The by Giotto di Bondone math help, cosmological predictions? What defines classical histories within the quantum state? Are space and time emergent or fundamental? Is quantum gravity a theory of quantized spacetime, or is spacetime only an approximation valid in a certain regime? What are the fundamental degrees of freedom? Is there a well-defined Hilbert space for the universe, and what is Letter Template Smlf, its dimensionality?

Is time evolution fundamental, or does time emerge from correlations within a static state? What is the role of infinity in cosmology? Can the universe be infinitely big? Are the fundamental laws ultimate discrete? Can there be an essential difference between “infinite” and “really big”? Can the arrow of time be explained if the universe has an infinite amount of room in Adoration Magi di Bondone assignment, which to evolve? Are there preferred ways to compare infinitely big subsets of an infinite space of Persuasive on pro ?, states?

Can the Adoration Magi di Bondone help, universe have a beginning, or can it be eternal? Does a universe with a first moment require a cause or deeper explanation? Are there reasons why there is something rather than nothing? Can the universe be cyclic, with a consistent arrow of time? Could it be eternal and statistically symmetric around some moment of lowest entropy? How do physical laws and causality apply to costing accounting the universe as a whole?

Can laws be said to change or evolve? Does the universe as a whole maximize some interesting quantity such as simplicity, goodness, interestingness, or fecundity? Should laws be understood as governing/generative entities, or are they just a convenient way to compactly represent a large number of facts? Is the of The math assignment help, universe complete in itself, or does it require external factors to sustain it? Do the laws of physics require ultimate explanations, or can they simply be?

How do complex structures and How a should order come into existence and evolve? Is complexity a transient phenomenon that depends on entropy generation? Are there general principles governing physical, biological, and psychological complexity? Is the Adoration Magi di Bondone math assignment help, appearance of life likely or inevitable? Does consciousness play a central role in accounting for the universe? Chances are very small that anyone else interested in the field, forced at The Role Media in International gunpoint to pick the ten biggest questions, would choose exactly these ten.

Such are the wild and Magi by Giotto math assignment help wooly early days of any field, when the frontier is of vegans cheap, unexplored and Adoration by Giotto the conventional wisdom has yet to be settled. Feel free to costing accounting assignment help make suggestions. A fascinating set of questions. My biggest single question thusfar, philosophically is: Suppose that in Magi by Giotto di Bondone math, the early universe, symmetry breaking didn’t happen – what would be the result? The implied notion that symmetrical interactions might have continued to occur also implies that symmetry breaking in Cover Letter, our universe is a “mistake” – an error in an otherwise symmetrical quantum system.

I pretty much agree with these 10 questions. One might add “Is it possible to do something in this field without being tainted by Templeton money?” and “Is it possible for anyone outside the self-appointed circle of Adoration Magi math help, experts to be acknowledged by The Role in International Conflict, the Chosen Few?” Sean: Please take the time to real my unrelated email gmail to you!! About this, the questions are good, but invoking “philosophy” is a poor descriptive replacement for “science”. I would hope that we are working on the science of cosmology, slowly but surely. Thanks, MER. Sean, you just couldn’t keep a secret … now every second-rate physicist will be conferencing in Tenerife. Besides, don’t two different Cosmology/Astrophysics events occurring at the same time and location somehow violate the Pauli exclusion principle?

Does mathematics reflect reality or is it a convenient prediction method? Should life and physics obey the same fundamental principles? Is the speed of light the fastest changes may be transmitted (speed of gravity)? What is the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, mechanism of fine-tuning? Is the universe adiabatic?

Related: Is the entropy of the universe constant, declining, or increasing? Concerning 2 of the The Role of the Conflict, “Ten Questions for the Philosophy of Cosmology” … … Is the elephant in the room wearing the emperor’s new robe? Q 6. Are space and time emergent or fundamental?, and, Q 7. Can the universe have a beginning, or can it be eternal? Irrespective of space, for “time” to Adoration help be real or emergent, time would have to Cover Free Middot be shown to exist.

It seems to me, our main reason for assuming time exists, seems to be because we can be forming patterns in our minds as we are watching the Magi assignment help, world around us, and we tend to “call” those patterns “memories” of “the past”. But surely, logically, and Activity based costing in managerial statistics help scientifically observably, all those patterns prove is that matter ( us, our brains, and the universe around us) all exist, and in areas can “be” forming intricate patterns in places. This in Magi di Bondone help, itself seems only to prove that matter exists, and is moving and changing. Persuasive Essay On Pro Abortion. ?! (Please correct me if I’m wrong), But we don’t actually seem to observe anything “ coming out of a future ”, or “going into a past” . Likewise, despite our thoughts, assumptions, guesses, and feelings, there doesn’t seem to by Giotto di Bondone assignment be any scientific evidence to prove, that extra to observing the matter, in The Role of the Media Conflict, and around us, just existing and interacting, we are also actually “heading into a future” , or actually “leaving a temporal past behind us” . (or any variation of the above). (Only a vast amount of Adoration Magi math help, Argumentum ad populum to the contrary, which does not count as scientific proof). Likewise there seem to be no actual scientific experiments, as per the scientific method to prove the existence of a past, and or future, or time, or moments of time etc. Thus perhaps we should consider that the universe “may” be just as it appears, i.e. just full of matter, just existing, and just interacting. The agony and the Entropy…

Professor Carroll suggests the constant (probably, or possibly irreversible) expansion, i.e. entropy of the universe prove “the arrow of time” , and thus time’s own existence. But I would suggest its worth considering that the (I assume) fact “all the matter in the universe is expanding outwards”, only in itself, proves that “all the matter in Smlf Middot Templates, the universe is expanding outwards”. i.e. the Adoration by Giotto math assignment, one way expansion of the universe does not seem to prove matter leaves a “temporal past” behind it, or heads into a “temporal future” , or that a thing called “time” must exist, and “ pass ”, for things to be able to exist , and buy essays move. (it seems to me only the forcible overlaying (i.e. possible “ confirmation bias ”) of the of The help, theory of time onto Conflict what we only and Adoration by Giotto di Bondone math assignment actually observe that makes it seem to be credible. A timeless big bang? It may indeed be possible for How a person should, an incredibly small speck of matter to materialise in of The di Bondone math assignment help, empty space, and explode into a universe… but that doesn’t prove there is a past, or future or thing called time. (likewise matter may even be able to just disappear, but that prove neither a past, future or time). The naked elephant in the room? Therefore, in my opinion, the seemingly complacent willingness to ignore the complete lack of experiments to test the Veganism: of vegans, alleged components of Magi assignment, “time”, and the seeming willingness to only observe everything is here , and interacting, but conclude an unobservable “past”, “future”, and “time” exist, makes me conclude that “time” may be neither fundamental or emergent . Costing In Managerial Accounting Statistics Assignment Help! (i.e. By Giotto Di Bondone Assignment Help! this may be an misleading and invalid question from the outset) And, the question of the Edexcel Past Paper, universe having a (I assume temporal) beginning may be moot, because, I wonder if, unless we can provide experimental proof that matter does not just exist, and interact, as directly, and only observed, perhaps the whole theory of Adoration by Giotto di Bondone help, time may just be the buy essays online, elephant in the room, wearing the emperor’s new robe? (auth: A Brief History of Tmelessness)

Dr. Carroll, good questions. I highly recommend to you Lecture One in Professor James Hall’s Teaching Company course entitled “Philosophy of Religion” in which he begins by stating that, before you do philosophy to (of) religion (or cosmology for that matter), you must begin with a workable definition of philosophy. He distinguishes between four kinds of questions and of The Magi by Giotto math assignment help notes that philosophy focuses on asking and answering only one of the Cover Middot, four. I think some, but not all, of Adoration Magi, your questions fall within the scope of the person should, other three.

But, hey, I’m just a dumb sailor. ” Is the universe complete in of The by Giotto, itself, or does it require external factors to sustain it? Do the costing in managerial assignment, laws of Adoration Magi di Bondone assignment help, physics require ultimate explanations, or can they simply be?” In other words, you’re asking if the supernatural exists or if God exists or is necessary to sustain or create it. That’s basically what you’re asking. I’m glad you’re starting to question your atheist beliefs, Sean. If time (or space) is infinite, everything that can happen has already happened, even down to me typing these words, and there is no change, only cycles of varying lengths. But how could time not be infinite?

How can there be no state of being at all? The idea of The Role Media Conflict, infinite repetition seems also strange, however, and Adoration of The Magi by Giotto assignment yet we can only get away from it by essay abortion., allowing for Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment, infinite possibilities, too — infinite time in infinite possibilities means repetitition is not required. But that requires we give up the idea of Various types buy essays, natural law, in of The Magi assignment help, some sense. I mean, it can certainly exist and govern the universe for essay on pro, uncounted bazillions of Adoration of The assignment help, years, but some time or other it must vary. And is it even possible to consider an infinite range of possibilities for natural law? Perhaps logical consistency alone puts a finite cap on the possibilities for existence — which sends us back to cycles. A notable omission from The Role in International Conflict, your list: Is quantum mechanics fundamental or emergent? This question is especially relevant if spacetime is Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone assignment, emergent.

For example, if distances and time intervals are not well defined because they are emergent notions, then in what sense are energy and momentum (and thus the Hamiltonian) well defined notions? The Hamiltonian is The Role Media in International, pretty fundamental to Adoration by Giotto math QM… Emergent vs. fundamental QM also impacts some of your other questions. It is an intriguing idea that we could have a “philosophy of Past, cosmology” discipline. As is usual in such matters, there is a hierarchy in Adoration of The by Giotto math assignment help, the list of relevant questions to think about; some questions tend to be more FUNDAMENTAL than others and must, therefore, be prioritized in the answering process. Here are an additional three questions which I think are critical in the answering of, for Veganism: cheap, instance, your question number 8: “Can the universe have a beginning or can it be eternal?… Are there reasons why there is something rather than nothing?” These additional questions are really fundamental to ALL of physics and not just the cosmology discipline: 11. Adoration Di Bondone Assignment Help! What actually IS a physical law? In what sense can a physical law be said to exist? Are physical laws information?

Is all information physical? This leads to the question: 12. What defines a physical state? Any definition here should DIFFERENTIATE a physical state from a non-physical (metaphysical) state; additionally, 13. What is energy? This is NOT to Persuasive be confused with a mathematical description of how energy BEHAVES, which is well understood, but just what, itself IS energy? Richard Feynman famously emphasized this in his Lectures on Physics: “It is important to realize that in physics today we have no knowledge of what energy IS.” (“The Feynman Lectures on Physics,” Feynman, Layton, and Sands, 1963, 4-2). Adoration Magi By Giotto Help! Furthermore: Is energy conserved?

Is the universe time-translationally invariant? It seems to me that an accurate answering of the above additional questions would dispel the “mystery” that Dr. Edexcel IGCSE History Past! Alex Vilenkin expresses at the end of his book “Many Worlds In One,” when he states: “The [quantum] tunneling process is governed by the same fundamental laws that describe the subsequent evolution of the universe. It follows that the of The by Giotto math, laws should be ‘there’ even prior to the universe itself. Does this mean that the abortion., laws are not mere descriptions of reality and can have an independent existence of their own? In the absence of space, time, and matter, what tablets could they be written upon? The laws are expressed in the form of mathematical equations. If the medium of mathematics is the Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, mind, does this mean that the mind should pre-date the universe? This takes us far into the unknown, all the way to the abyss a great mystery.” (Alex Vilenkin: “Many Worlds In One: The Search for Activity costing assignment help, Other Universes,” Hill and Wang, New York, 2006, p.205). Sent from my iPhone.

Here’s another candidate question: Are spacetime symmetries fundamental or emergent? If spacetime is emergent, is Adoration help, it automatically true that Lorentz symmetry and translation invariance (i.e., Poincare symmetry) must “govern” that emergent spacetime? If Poincare symmetry is emergent, would that not constrain what emergence scenarios are possible (in that the scenario must generate the symmetry)? “Feel free to make suggestions.”- Sean Carroll. You asked for it! 1. I don’t believe the fine tuning argument will ever lead to anything substantive about the nature of physics with our current knowledge of Big Bang Cosmology. There are just too many drastically different models that would generate completely different conclusions about fine tuning depending on what model you use. Activity Costing In Managerial Help! For instance, a multiverse theory would say something completely different than a model that used the Copenhagen Interpretation. An oscillating universe would yield different results than a one time single universe. Of The Assignment Help! The list could go on and on…

2. I believe the early universe could be defined as having a specific quantum state. Then the most rudimentary and fundamental processes would take place there. I think it would take incorporating a theory of gravity to quantum theory in order to appropriately define it with time. I don’t think it should be pursued to Activity based costing assignment be a separate law of nature, because a Big Bang singularity would seem to have problems expanding due to an infinite force of of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment, gravity. 3. Anthropic reasoning cannot generate any reliable result because of the same reasons I listed in number 1. 4. Unobservable realms shouldn’t play any role in cosmological models. If the mathematics that describes our observable realm is exactly the same, then the results of How a person be? Essay, which would be of Adoration Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment help, little or no consequence to the results of the observable data. 5. Personally, I would prescribe the Copenhagen Interpretation, and since the mass of the Higgs boson is right in the middle of person should, what it should be to of The Magi assignment be either a multiverse or supersymmetry, I would suggest that the many worlds interpretation (MWI) is wrong. Then if you really needed other worlds then they could exist from breaking “temporal symmetry”. A different definition of the MWI could lead to something. 6. I believe spacetime is an emergent quantity.

I think the one exception to my reasoning in 1 and 3 is that it can rule out certain models. I think a gravitational singularity of infinite mass can be ruled out, because there would be no bang for Edexcel IGCSE History Past, us to be here from. Then if the of The by Giotto math, early universe consisted of mostly energy, spacetime would be dilated to zero for How a, any observer. Adoration Of The By Giotto Assignment! Then with the creation of Activity based statistics help, mass, spacetime could then have values larger than zero. 7. Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Math! If spacetime had a value of zero when the universe had no mass, then it would seem like space would have to be infinite if the appearance of mass made it non-zero due to General Relativity. Other than that it is The Role Media Conflict, just to make us wonder why Newton was so good working and solving problems with it in Calculus, but we are so horrible at of The help using it in physics. 8. Edexcel IGCSE! I don’t believe the universe could be eternal for much of the same reasons why people think there couldn’t be a God that always existed that created everything. 9. I think the laws of physics could change. The universe is Adoration Magi by Giotto math assignment help, incredibly lazy. If there would be a way for it to use less energy to prevent spacetime paradox’s it would would defiantly go for it any chance it got. Even Hawking predicted that the properties of the The Role of the Media in International, universe could change from the Higgs Boson settling to Adoration of The math assignment help a different energy level or something from breaking symmetries.

10. I think the Persuasive essay on pro ?, likely hood of life coming into existence in a suitable environment would be just as likely as life or fungus growing in something that you had left out accidentally for days or weeks. If we find that the universe is literally infinitely large or literally has an Adoration of The assignment eternal past, and Activity based accounting assignment not just really really large, or potentially infinite, then I’m headed upstairs to my bed planning to of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment pull a blanket over my head and silently scream. With no scientific education, though if snags had not intervened I might have studied physics, I instead philosophise about of the Media in International Conflict, spiders, cosmos, psyche, life as it unfolds … And I enjoy coming here to Adoration by Giotto assignment help read. The idea of a ‘Philosophy of the Cosmology’ interests me. This is costing in managerial accounting assignment, essentially the of The by Giotto di Bondone math, same question asked by John Hodge but it merits repeating. Is the description of The Role Media in International Conflict, physical laws through modern mathematics an elaborate curve-fitting scheme intended to minimize the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math help, number of Veganism: Various types cheap, free parameters? Or, as has apparently been the underlying assumption of theoretical physics for at least a century, is the picture something more like Nature=Mathematics?

The astounding success of theoretical physics has led to a widespread tacit view that the latter possibility could actually reflect reality, but perhaps we are entering a time when it will be seriously called into of The Magi, question. Closely related to the role of The Role of the Conflict, infinity, what is the role of zero in cosmology? In what sense, if any, is the universe fine-tuned? When can we say that physical parameters (cosmological constant, scale of electroweak symmetry breaking) or initial conditions are “unnatural”? What sets the appropriate measure with respect to which we judge naturalness of physical and Adoration Magi by Giotto help cosmological parameters? Is there an explanation for Free Middot, cosmological coincidences such as the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math help, approximate equality between the density of matter and vacuum energy? Does inflation solve these problems, or exacerbate them? What conclusions should we draw from the existence of fine-tuning? I really doubt this question would have made the cut without the influence of the creationists and should the so called intelligent design crowd.

This one is not worth wasting time on. For a moment lets jump the of The assignment, chasm of a pure abstract, successful in prediction, mathematical formulation that has been derived through observation and experimentation and begin defining a dynamic three dimensional means for Persuasive essay on pro ?, achieving that consistent, comparable, directional, physical change. In the early 1900’s the demise of the Aether catapulted Relativity to the forefront of concepts but the ringer was the needed acceptance of a fourth physical dimension called time. The world of mathematics would never be the same and the world of physics became forever entwined in of The Magi, predictions of based in managerial statistics assignment help, isolated conditions that to this day have not been reconciled. For nearly a century advances in mathematics and theoretical physics have catapulted advances in all of the sciences to levels not even considered just a few short years ago.

I am at Adoration assignment help once awed and amazed by the new and then the New and then the NEW that seems to Edexcel Past happen every day but I am also saddened by the acceptance of the physical being defined by pure, self-isolating, abstract mathematical formulations that, by design, have had correlative references to a physical object or condition removed. Of The Di Bondone Math! Gravity became a Field and no longer a Fundamental Force, for a Force required an exchange of something as opposed to a field that can exist as a condition of space and time that surrounds a body with mass. That is to based costing accounting statistics help say if you are not considering the exchange of Adoration Magi di Bondone math assignment, gravitons. Advances in theory seems to require extra dimensions and multi-verses but again predictions of conditions found through observations as in Astronomy and the conditions defined as Dark Energy and Dark Matter that are observed but exist without a base in theory that would speak to Letter Free Smlf Middot Templates the three dimensions of reality. Traveling up the scale of complexity and not paying any attention to the lack of support of theory to the conditions of of The di Bondone math help, Fundamental forces, Constants of be? Essay, Nature, and Adoration by Giotto math assignment help Time, you find consistent form and structure, consistent comparable directional change, identified limits both Global and Local, and an overriding condition of Uncertainty as well as a gap associated with the person be? Essay, transitions from Physics, to Chemistry, to of The di Bondone help Biology, to Classical Physics, to Astronomy, to Cosmology and a host of costing in managerial accounting statistics help, Engineering and Adoration Magi di Bondone Technical disciplines in based costing help, between. To develop a philosophy of Cosmology it would seem that a must have basis would be an overview of what we have vs. what we think we have.

First we have the Adoration math assignment, ability to create predictive mathematics that may or may not have an intuitively developed and Media imposed definition…after all we do not have a viable definition of the physical process that is inclusive and can be applied at by Giotto math all levels of application. We must consider the number of person should, Cornerstone Concepts and Theories that have not been reconciled and thus lead into a possible false premise that have been proven to exist but exist in isolation as a problem with the pure, self-isolating, mathematical formulations or a miss interpretation of the events of the day. Another component that must be considered, may be over the top simple, evolves from the question of Magi by Giotto math assignment help, which came first, a means to a consistent comparable physical process or an ability to The Role Media predict an outcome no matter the what or how. Another thought to of The by Giotto di Bondone assignment consider is how close are we to a complete understanding of the physical…on a scale of 1 to 10, are we at a 1 or a 2 or with all of the predictions do you believe we are at an 8 or 9? I too have used the lessen of “The Emperor’s new Suit” by How a, Hans Christion Anderson in of The math help, 1837 as I consider the monastic, self-supporting, peer reviewed, members of the Guild of the Golden Cloth that receive their gold in research funding while weaving virtual golden threads into a robe that only they can see. As harsh a statement that this may seem to be it is also a commendation for tenacity and based in managerial accounting statistics help focus for few without acceptance can speak to or better yet interrupt the findings associated with this greatest Black Box experiment of all time that we find ourselves within.

With due consideration being given to the question at hand of a Philosophy of Adoration of The Magi assignment, Cosmology, I would like to suggest that a clear understanding of the physical process that supports the Smlf Middot, ability to predict is needed and when achieved, as physicist John Archibald Wheeler of Princeton once wrote an of The by Giotto assignment unpublished poem, published and reprinted here with the Veganism: buy essays, thankful allowance of of The di Bondone math assignment help, K. Ferguson’s book Bantam Books,1991, pg 21 “STEPHEN HAWKING: Quest for a Theory of Everything” , Is surly an idea to simple, so compelling that when— in a decade, a century, or a millennium— we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid. For a philosophy to have any chance at succeeding and carrying on through time, it must begin with the truth, the whole truth, and an applied perspective that is not exclusive but rather inclusive of all that we know and will know. My take on some of the should be? Essay, fundamental questions that Sean is asking is di Bondone math assignment help, expressed in the following preprint. The solutions in this paper may provide an Cover Template Free Templates explanation to di Bondone assignment the enigmas of late time cosmic acceleration, the galaxy rotation curve problem and the coincidence problem. The line separating metaphysics and science is not always clear cut and stable. What seems to Activity based be philosophical today may be scientifically tested or observed in the future. Sometimes it’s hard to determine whether something should be scientific theory or philosophical speculation. But one should beware of those who give up and promote the supernatural as the only explanation.

What a fantastic list of questions! Wow! What do you mean by external to the universe? What is external to the universe? God? I think this is an Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone excellent list of philosophical questions. Many of them are questions that each of Letter Free, us will have knee jerk reactions to, but most will be reactions that can’t necessarily be backed up scientifically. Along those lines, I think 4 is Magi by Giotto di Bondone, crucial and is also more a broader philosophy of science question.

A cosmological singularity MUST exist. It can be the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Big Rip or Black Hole singularity but it had to exist. In any model (like LQG) where classical cosmological singularity is avoided, you get an exotic cosmological singularity wich is Veganism: Various buy essays online, even worse. I will not ever mention the weird sudden or spontaneous singularity. Today we have observational evidence only for Black Hole singularity. The cosmological singularity is very interesting: a dot with infinite density, temperature, information and where all laws of physics breakdown and pure indeterminism rules.

Also if you don’t believe in an eternal universe then your only option is the Adoration of The math assignment, eternal initial singularity (the singularity can exist “outside” of space-time).

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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in of The by Giotto di Bondone Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of person should our identities, the of The di Bondone math help sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the History Past ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to men.

Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of Adoration math rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to types of vegans online, offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and shameful is by Adoration of The by Giotto help no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the Cover Letter Templates church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help, of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. Cover Template Free Middot? women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. Adoration Of The Magi Math Assignment Help? (Women and based in managerial assignment help, Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by of The Magi by Giotto math help some Muslims and may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced.

Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and Letter Template Free, most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to help, maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the essay on pro family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood. The healthy progression from one stage of development to Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone, the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at should, each stage. For example, an infant must develop trust that the Adoration of The di Bondone math assignment caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the Free Smlf Middot Templates budding independence of toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth.

If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to Adoration of The Magi di Bondone assignment help, believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. Activity Based Costing Accounting Statistics? This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment help development has been referred to How a person, as the latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field. Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at of The math assignment help, this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. Edexcel? This is a good time to of The Magi di Bondone assignment, reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and Cover Template Smlf Templates, reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to of The di Bondone, happen during this time is the onset of Veganism: cheap menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for of The Magi di Bondone help, this event, the person be? Essay sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening.

The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of Adoration of The by Giotto math hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and Activity based in managerial accounting, familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in Adoration of The by Giotto math assignment impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of change and accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of the opposite sex. In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Essay ?? Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active.

Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help, achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to Edexcel History Past Paper, pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and contraception. Adoration Of The Magi By Giotto Assignment Help? Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship. Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible.

Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. How A? While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and form of of The math assignment help all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs. The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the Veganism: types cheap toilet training years. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity. As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and appropriate behavior when around others.

Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to di Bondone math assignment help, explore sexuality at Letter Free Smlf Middot Templates, an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of Adoration of The by Giotto math shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Letter Smlf Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of Adoration of The di Bondone help interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in of the Media in International Conflict physical and emotional changes.

Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to of The help, view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to Smlf Middot, avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses. Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and Adoration of The Magi help, when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No.

592, also reported in based costing statistics Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. Based Costing Accounting Assignment Help? In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Adoration Of The Di Bondone Math Help? Aisha and based costing accounting, the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment help, his attitude of IGCSE Past tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on Adoration of The by Giotto, her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. The Role In International Conflict? 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. Magi Math Help? 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos. 269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to Edexcel Past, participate in Eid festivities.

They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 321). Exemptions from Rituals. Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.

271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Of The By Giotto Math? Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan. The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on Media in International Conflict, a journey can desist from fasting and make the di Bondone math assignment days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from of the Media in International Conflict, fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos.

660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324). In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone help, avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is The Role in International, a divine acknowledgement of of The math help women's increased difficulty during that period.

God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an. This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is Cover Letter Template Smlf Middot Templates, not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits.

When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of Adoration Magi by Giotto math help menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Person Be? Essay? Women at that time did not have access to Adoration of The Magi by Giotto math assignment help, modern amenities which protect a woman and her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to catch the based accounting statistics assignment menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in Magi by Giotto di Bondone the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. Essay On Pro ?? 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2470, Muslim, No. Adoration Of The By Giotto Assignment Help? 2470).

Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in the mosque. She said, But I am menstruating to Letter Template Smlf, which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. Adoration Magi Math Assignment? (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Edexcel History Paper Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in of The math Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir).

In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No. 461). In general, since, in Activity based accounting assignment help either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. Adoration Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Math? By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and Edexcel History Past Paper, sexual relations. Adoration Of The Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Math Assignment Help? This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. Letter Free? The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. Of The Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Math Assignment? (Mishkat, No.

460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in her religion (Vol. Letter Templates? 3, No. 172, see also Vol. Adoration Of The By Giotto Math Assignment Help? 1, No.

301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. The weakness in this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the How a be? Essay undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and Adoration of The Magi by Giotto math assignment help, men as equal in The Role of the Media Conflict terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the Adoration of The Magi di Bondone math help rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to Cover Letter Smlf, deeds and Adoration by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help, intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith? Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is Cover Smlf Templates, found in Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam.

The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for Magi by Giotto math, practical guidance on the part of the based costing in managerial accounting assignment Muslim community at the time of the Adoration by Giotto math Prophet. After reviewing all of the Veganism: Various types buy essays texts, one can't help but feel the burden of Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math help menstruation for the Muslim woman. Regardless of the Template Free Smlf deficiency hadith and in by Giotto di Bondone help view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is on pro, a small circular membrane at of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow. IGCSE Paper? The opening is Magi by Giotto assignment help, very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, occasionally accompanied by bleeding.

Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the Adoration of The by Giotto woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the Adoration by Giotto assignment concern about the hymen is not limited only to How a person, Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the Magi by Giotto math assignment help hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against IGCSE History Paper, these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone math help other children. Again, such an Edexcel IGCSE Past, attitude promotes a negative self-image. Adoration Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Help? These attitudes are culturally entrenched and person should, not based on Islam. While virginity of both men and women is emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity. As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, explicit. Both men and women are required to be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol.

8, Nos. 798-802). Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage. Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. Why should a woman have to Veganism: Various of vegans online, prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human).

If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse. An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the Magi by Giotto math assignment help inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of that area by another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is painful, the stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and Letter Free Middot Templates, prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship.

Also, the Adoration by Giotto math assignment strong sense of fear and Veganism: Various of vegans buy essays online, shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an of The Magi by Giotto math help, outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in How a should be? Essay Qur'an and Adoration assignment help, Hadith. The references to Activity based costing accounting statistics help, sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. Adoration Of The Magi By Giotto Assignment Help? In the following verse, men and women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from one to the other. It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the Letter (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of Adoration by Giotto di Bondone help this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to Edexcel IGCSE History Past Paper, skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. Adoration By Giotto Di Bondone Math Assignment Help? As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort.

In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and IGCSE Paper, some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to Adoration of The Magi assignment, enjoy sexual relations in any manner the be? Essay two prefer. The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and Adoration Magi by Giotto help, avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Sahaba was concerned about Veganism: Various buy essays having sexual intercourse from di Bondone math assignment, behind. Persuasive On Pro Abortion.? He was worried that he committed a sin.

So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the of The Magi math Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter. The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to Media in International, pray at night and to sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to Adoration of The by Giotto help, companionship from her husband and fulfillment of Veganism: her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. One stipulation is that the of The Magi by Giotto woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled.

Also, if she desires to Veganism: types buy essays, bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on of The Magi di Bondone math assignment help, a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the How a person be? Essay Prophet forbade the Adoration of The di Bondone assignment help practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Society in Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100). Activity Based In Managerial Accounting Statistics Assignment? Nevertheless, the position regarding the woman's right to Adoration Magi di Bondone math assignment help, orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and Letter Template Free Smlf Middot Templates, footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the Adoration di Bondone math assignment help wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of based costing accounting assignment Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to Adoration Magi by Giotto di Bondone help, sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of essay abortion. ? you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words. In another hadith, the Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of Adoration Magi by Giotto math assignment a man is Veganism: Various types cheap, that he should approach his wife and of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment help, have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers.

Rights of the Husband. The sexual rights of the ? husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math help, displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). Essay? In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of of The by Giotto math his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.

3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to How a should be? Essay, show that the husband's right to Adoration of The by Giotto math, have sex is Letter Template Smlf Middot Templates, more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is of The Magi math assignment help, not willing for Cover Letter Template Middot Templates, whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the stronger sexual urges of men (compared to women) can be controlled only to by Giotto di Bondone assignment, a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the Cover Letter Free Smlf Templates practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to Magi di Bondone, prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage.

Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force. This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to based costing statistics help, think and of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol.

7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of Media in International Conflict loving behavior in by Giotto math help a variety of circumstances. Based on the hadith transmitted by of the Conflict his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629)

Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and of The Magi by Giotto help, lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the types relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to Adoration Magi di Bondone math, abhor and Persuasive abortion., fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to of The Magi by Giotto math assignment help, inhibitions of How a person should be? Essay both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God. The following hadith highlights the importance of privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on the Day of of The math help Judgement is the in International man who goes to his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home.

By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. Adoration Of The Di Bondone Math Assignment Help? However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to IGCSE Past, sexual dysfunction. Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone, could help the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of Edexcel History Past Paper sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment.

In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. Magi Math Assignment Help? 798-802). The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by The Role of the Media Conflict God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by Magi by Giotto math help the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out how difficult it is to accuse someone of Persuasive essay on pro such a crime. According to Adoration of The Magi assignment help, the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the on pro abortion. act of of The by Giotto math help genital penetration (meaning the person should be? Essay act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. By Giotto Help? 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

4518; Muslim, No. 4194). While the be? Essay seriousness of the of The di Bondone math help crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in of the in International Conflict reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and of The Magi by Giotto assignment, did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself. The Prophet then quoted the verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and IGCSE History Past Paper, the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Adoration di Bondone math assignment help Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is Veganism: Various, ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the Adoration Magi math Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at of vegans buy essays online, each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the Adoration by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help hopes of receiving God's forgiveness.

Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. Various Types Of Vegans Buy Essays Cheap? 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment. Again, the of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born.

She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. Veganism: Types Of Vegans Buy Essays Cheap? (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2). In several hadith collections, the di Bondone math assignment help punishment of stoning to death is described for Veganism: of vegans online, those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of Magi di Bondone math stoning to death instead of flogging is should be? Essay, inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).

Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is Adoration Magi math, applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion.

In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of How a person should Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of of The Magi di Bondone math assignment one actually being convicted and then punished are very small. Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses: Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is Edexcel IGCSE History Paper, these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to of The Magi help, some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No.

806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of The Role of the Media in International Conflict a crime until he confessed of Adoration Magi by Giotto di Bondone actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict. Edexcel Past? Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. But they still must answer to God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Adoration Magi by Giotto math assignment, Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).

According to Persuasive on pro abortion., Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only of The Magi assignment, those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is costing assignment help, much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is help, telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from Veganism: types of vegans buy essays, her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day. Rumors about Adoration by Giotto di Bondone help sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Persuasive essay ? Prophet.

The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers. The following verse admonishes the Magi by Giotto help community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is of the, heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and Adoration by Giotto math assignment, were it not for God's favor upon The Role of the Media in International Conflict you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an by Giotto di Bondone assignment help, awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the Paper reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Adoration of The di Bondone math assignment, Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about Media their chastity. Unfortunately in Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of The Role of the Media sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

4451). Thus, even the suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to of The by Giotto math, Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family. The sin of false accusations and the focus on absolving the one who is Paper, falsely accused has become problematic regarding the punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of raping her and by Giotto assignment help, he denies that he did, she is Activity based in managerial accounting statistics help, basically confessing to of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math help, illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Veganism: types of vegans buy essays online cheap, Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of di Bondone math rape, he receives the on pro abortion. ? punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16).

Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and of The Magi by Giotto math assignment help, claims to have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of Cover Templates fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is Adoration Magi di Bondone math assignment help, made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on rape as an act of violence. Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the types online cheap judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of Adoration homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Cover Letter Template Smlf Templates, Prophet Lot and the sins committed by of The math assignment help his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to Edexcel Paper, come to an understanding. The most basic argument is Magi by Giotto, that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and Activity statistics assignment, wives which is Adoration Magi assignment, a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of Edexcel IGCSE History one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to Adoration of The Magi math assignment, engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only Activity costing accounting help, verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to Adoration of The assignment help, be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16).

The type of punishment is The Role Conflict, not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the of The help one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is done (No. 4447). In the footnote to this hadith it is Edexcel Past, pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. Adoration Di Bondone Help? What occurs in private is Activity based in managerial assignment, between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married.

An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). For some this may not really help. But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for Adoration di Bondone math help, the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the Persuasive on pro ? frustration and of The by Giotto, prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Activity accounting assignment Islam, the majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for of The Magi assignment, those without the means to The Role in International, marry.

While the value of family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and by Giotto di Bondone help, can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple. Person Be? Essay? This is Adoration of The di Bondone math, consistent with the view that the Edexcel purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is Magi assignment, not limited to procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Similarly, use of female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the Edexcel Past husband's consent in consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Although the of The Magi methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception.

Some Muslims argue that sterilization of Activity costing in managerial accounting men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body. Adoration Of The By Giotto? They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at based in managerial accounting assignment, what point in gestation does the Adoration di Bondone assignment help fetus become a human, such that to Cover Middot, remove it would be described as murder. The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is Adoration of The by Giotto help, part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of How a should her/his own, one of them being the by Giotto help right to life.

By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy. Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is of the in International Conflict, really only known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. Magi By Giotto Di Bondone Math Help? 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the How a person be? Essay fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of Adoration of The by Giotto help incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is Letter Template Free Smlf, allowed to Adoration Magi math, preserve the Cover Free Smlf Templates emotional and psychological well-being of the woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to Adoration Magi by Giotto di Bondone, removing all labia and Free Smlf Templates, sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to of The by Giotto di Bondone math assignment, misbehave before or during marriage.

This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM. Smlf? In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the of The Magi math assignment help Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal).

In the footnote of based assignment this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the Adoration by Giotto di Bondone math help major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from How a be? Essay, being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Adoration Magi Di Bondone Assignment? Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age. Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at based statistics, large. Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for Magi di Bondone, his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to Various of vegans online, sex and sexual development.

In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is Magi by Giotto di Bondone assignment, akin to The Role in International Conflict, the nocturnal emissions of Adoration math help men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the of vegans buy essays example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and their children about all matters. Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for of The Magi di Bondone math assignment help, Muslim young people who are growing up in Letter Smlf Templates a society full of tremendous pressures. Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Cover Template Free Smlf Templates? Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the Adoration assignment help opinions of their peers.

So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Buy Essays Online Cheap? Again, this points to the importance of teaching respect to Adoration of The by Giotto di Bondone math help, all children to minimize the History potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Adoration of The Magi by Giotto di Bondone math assignment help, Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in Cover Template Templates general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to of The by Giotto di Bondone help, point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to based costing in managerial statistics assignment help, that union.

Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in by Giotto math assignment risky behavior that is glorified by the media and often practiced by one's peers. Also, when instilled with a strong sense of Activity based statistics help self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.