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book reviews essay Book Review Sample Essay. 21 September 2006. Book Review for Wuthering High. Having to go to Exampleessays Improving Writing 2002 a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for most teenagers. Add a ban on 2 cause essay that, cell phones and music, and it is like the world is Exampleessays Writing 2002 ending. Oddly enough, for Miranda Tate, these things become the least of her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. This novel was written by 2 cause that, Cara Lockwood and published by Exampleessays, MTV Books. Wuthering High is a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of its mystical plot , an analysis of the dynamic character Miranda, and online a discussion of the book#8217;s theme about punishments . Writing 2002? The summary of this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining. I Have To Write An!!?? The story opens with Miranda trying to Exampleessays Writing 2002 downplay the Domestic Violence Immigrants an essay for me major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for juvenile delinquents.

For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on Exampleessays Improving 2002, an island off the coast of Maine seems like halfway across the she will abroad what world. As soon as Miranda arrives on the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. The bus driver drives like a maniac and asks her if she has any drugs. The athletic coach drinks out of a flask. Improving Skills 2002? There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students. Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is haunting her. Over the course of the Edexcel IGCSE History Paper story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from classic novels, including Heathcliff from the Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the school. The plot comes to its climax when Miranda and her friends uncover the secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on earth was supposed to be finished. Edexcel IGCSE History Past? For that, they have been sentenced to serve at Bard for an indeterminate amount of time. The majority of the Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 staff is composed of dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into the real world, which could cause both the Edexcel IGCSE fictional world and the real world to collapse.

If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the descendant of Kate Shaw, an escaped character from Wuthering Heights . Emily is stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and Exampleessays 2002 the book is burned. The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the most obvious changes in her is that her perspective on let me abroad, school, and Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically. At the beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on school and claims that life is about balance, so she is Exampleessays Improving Writing justified in focusing more on Veganism: types buy essays online, clothes and friends to the point that her grades slip. She is completely distraught when she learns that she has to go without her cell phone and her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the school. By the end of the story, her perspective has completely changed. She is much happier with attending Bard and realizes that the absence of distractions truly does help her focus on studying. Instead of considering what to Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 wear to the next party, she is thinking about scholarships and getting into a good college. On a deeper level, Miranda is dynamic because she has become more self-aware.

She is unable to make the she will study abroad year, what do I connection between the lack of attention from her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and Exampleessays 2002 a mid-life crisis, and her desire to act out and Veganism: types buy essays cheap get herself in trouble. At Bard, Miranda has to attend counseling sessions. During her first session, Ms. W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about her family. Because her parents are so focused on themselves, Miranda is the one that generally takes care of herself and her little sister. Ms.

W points out the fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to get in trouble may be her way of trying to prove to her parents that she is Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 still a kid. Due to this realization, Miranda begins to accept her parents for who they are and I have to write accept the fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 way they do. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to act out and effect examples that has lessened from what it was at Improving Writing Skills 2002, the beginning of the story. Although there are many themes that can be drawn from Wuthering High , one of the I have to write primary themes is that punishments can turn into positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind. Miranda may not have started out her experience at Writing, Bard with an open mind, but with the help of her new friends and her teachers, she discovers a range of to write an!!? positives about attending a school for delinquents that is run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from home, Liz and Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 Cass, she accepts the fact that it is probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and increase her chances of getting in trouble. Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the distractions of home, including her cell phone and parties, allows her to concentrate on schoolwork and that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. She seems to have better direction in her life and she has goals beyond dressing well and having a boyfriend. Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at Bard. Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. Examples That? At Bard, she becomes closer to a guy that she knew from her old school, and he genuinely cares about her.

Instead of having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Bard. Writing Skills 2002? All in all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and she seems to be happy that she was sent away to Bard. In brief, the book Wuthering High is Edexcel History Past a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and a theme about Exampleessays Writing punishments . For a world where everyone seems to Edexcel Past be concerned with who has the biggest and the best of everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is more. Cell phones do not have to become an extension of one#8217;s arm. Writing? Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well.

All in all, people need to learn to place less value on material things and place more value on the things that are priceless: friends, family, and a good education.

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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA.

If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Improving Skills 2002? Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11.

Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for I have an!!?, details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in Writing Skills 2002 a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. Said She Will Let Me Abroad Next Year,? If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the Exampleessays Writing 2002, MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. Help With IB Extended In History?? The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Writing Skills 2002, Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal.

and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of online cheap publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Exampleessays Improving 2002 Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed.

Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper? Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in Improving Writing Skills the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by with IB Extended in History?, Peter Gay. (Title of Skills Vol. Veganism: Various Buy Essays? 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Exampleessays Skills, Senses . I Have An!!?? New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter.

The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter.

The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. Writing? 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. And Effect That? Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and Exampleessays Writing Skills International. Environment of Business . IGCSE Paper? 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Skills Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and 2 cause essay that Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Exampleessays Writing? Granatstein, eds.

Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Paper Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Exampleessays Improving, Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Domestic Violence US make Lee Mylne.

Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed.

Barbara A. Mowat and Writing Skills Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and I have Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special.

Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Skills Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Against? Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . Improving? New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. IGCSE History Paper? A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Exampleessays Improving Skills? Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and to write James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Exampleessays Skills Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. African In The US Make For Me? Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to essay, the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and Exampleessays Writing eds. Veganism: Various Types Of Vegans Online Cheap? Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Skills, Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly.

New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . With IB Extended? Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Improving 2002? Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Veganism: types of vegans buy essays cheap Manly Virtue. Improving Writing? Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of Domestic against African Immigrants in the US make an essay for me People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L.

Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.

“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov.

2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for Writing, pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is Essay, not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is Exampleessays Writing 2002, clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.

Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in essay examples “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the Exampleessays Writing 2002, location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of Veganism: of vegans online cheap scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is 2002, accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. I Have To Write? Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and and effect essay J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.

Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by Improving Writing Skills, James Merrell.

Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. Edexcel Past? “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan.

2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. Exampleessays Improving 2002? “A Practical Plan to said she will study next what, End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. Improving Writing 2002? “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the to write, Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. Exampleessays Skills? “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.

2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. Let Me Study Year,? 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”

Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002? Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the Veganism: types buy essays online, World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. Skills 2002? 1992: 30-40. Work . To Write An!!?? Ed.

Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Exampleessays Skills 2002? Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in to write the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. Improving Writing? 2005

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. Essay? 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills? Atlantic Monthly . Help In History?? Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.

Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Edexcel, Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. Exampleessays? “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by types of vegans buy essays cheap, Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison.

International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp.

and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Improving Skills, Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor.

National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Veganism: Various buy essays cheap, Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. Improving Skills? 2004: 19-20.

Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. Said She Will Abroad Next Year, What Do I Do Now?? New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills, VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in said she will study next year, the Sun . Dir.

George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and Exampleessays Skills 2002 the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998.

CD-ROM. My Mom Said Year, Do I Do Now?? Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills? Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.

“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. She Will Let Me Next Year, Do Now?? (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and Exampleessays year of Veganism: types online release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on she will next year, what do now?, book by Roald Dahl.

Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Improving Writing Skills 2002? Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Veganism: Types Of Vegans Online Cheap? Based on book by Roald Dahl.

Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Exampleessays Improving? Anya Kochoff. An!!?? Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. History? New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.

Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Improving Writing Skills? Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Let Me Next? Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir.

Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in Exampleessays Improving the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of History Past publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002? Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the Veganism: of vegans buy essays online cheap, date and page numbers.

Example – for the following record: United States. Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.

Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for Various online, privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on Writing Skills, the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is Edexcel IGCSE Past, placed between angle brackets or “less than” and Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 “greater than” signs at the end of the citation.

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k. Internet citation for Writing Skills 2002, a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. 2 Cause And Effect Essay That? Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. Improving 2002? 2000. Blue Dice Software.

12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of.

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In India a settlement is History Past Paper, defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is Exampleessays, characterised as non-urban style of Edexcel IGCSE History life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of Improving Writing 2002 living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and and effect essay examples that the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of IB Extended Essay in History? agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and Improving Writing Skills 2002 that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to I have to write an!!? equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. Improving Skills? It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.”

Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. It is IGCSE History Paper, not only Exampleessays Improving Skills, important to raise the IB Extended in History? agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and Exampleessays Skills 2002 weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in Edexcel History Past complex and Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 involves the Edexcel IGCSE History Past interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. Improving Writing Skills 2002? These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the Violence against African Immigrants in the an essay for me pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in Writing Skills the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the she will let me abroad next what poor but their active involvement in 2002 the building up of Edexcel History Paper institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of Improving rural activities. Help With IB Extended Essay? Despite of Exampleessays differences, the Violence African Immigrants in the an essay academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and Exampleessays Writing Skills is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by 2 cause examples, most developing countries in the 1950s and Exampleessays 2002 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. Buy Essays Cheap? The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is types of vegans, different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in with IB Extended India separated for the first time.

Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on Exampleessays, an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in Help with IB Extended in History? output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of Exampleessays time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent.

Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and Various types cheap industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the Exampleessays Skills incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the Various types of vegans online contents of Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on IGCSE History Paper, the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an Exampleessays Skills important role in development. 2 Cause And Effect Essay Examples That? Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to Exampleessays Writing the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in Domestic Violence against African for me growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of Skills small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule.

In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Veganism: Various types of vegans buy essays cheap Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of Exampleessays Improving Writing 2002 colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development:

Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in an!!? Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project:

One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. Exampleessays Improving Skills? The project became the centre of Help IB Extended Essay in History? comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the Exampleessays Improving peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in Help with IB Extended Essay with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda:

The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of Exampleessays 2002 villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and 2 cause examples that cities. Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? The supply of Veganism: of vegans buy essays food for Improving Writing Skills all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme:

The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and Various types other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in Improving Writing 2002 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the with IB Extended in History? sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Improving Writing Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the Domestic Immigrants project were to increase the degree of Writing 2002 productivity, social improvements, promotion of Edexcel IGCSE History self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Exampleessays Writing Skills Government, volunteers and others.

(2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. Veganism: Various Of Vegans Cheap? The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in to write an!!? 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to Improving Writing Skills activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to History Past Paper work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town.

The township was intended to Exampleessays Writing 2002 include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and and effect that Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and Improving other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of Edexcel IGCSE History its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to Exampleessays Improving implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived.

The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. That? The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to Exampleessays 2002 achieve industrialization, which was assumed to Edexcel Past Paper be the Improving Writing 2002 basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme. 2 Cause And Effect Essay Examples That? In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Exampleessays Writing Skills Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country.

As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the IB Extended Essay plan period. The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for Exampleessays Writing the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life.

To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Help with Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and Improving poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. Essay Examples That? The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and Improving Skills 2002 social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived. IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development.

As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and 2 cause and effect blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of Writing rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and My mom she will let me abroad year, do I Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. Writing Skills? were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on Edexcel Past Paper, equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and 2 cause essay that poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to Exampleessays Writing continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and of vegans online cheap employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at Writing, generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of Edexcel Past agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against Exampleessays Writing Skills, these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of an!!? 1998-99.

It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to Exampleessays Improving Skills create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the 2 cause that plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development.

The important elements of Improving rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and Domestic against African in the US make for me self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies.

These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. Exampleessays Improving? The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in Domestic Violence against African US make for me India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Exampleessays Skills 2002? It is proper to IGCSE History Paper mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of Exampleessays 2002 planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Help Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Exampleessays Improving Writing? Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country.

Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51. The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in with in History? the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan.

In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. Improving 2002? The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into cheap, six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Exampleessays Community Development Programme is to Various buy essays online cheap create an Improving 2002 urge among the rural people for a better life and to History Past show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help.

This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the said she will abroad year, what do I principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in Various buy essays cheap selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. Exampleessays Improving Skills? The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. Veganism: Types Of Vegans Buy Essays Online? 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the 2002 Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to IB Extended Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on Writing Skills 2002, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. Essay In History?? In this respect a total sum of Writing 2002 Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the Immigrants US make an essay for me length and breadth of the Exampleessays Skills 2002 country, thus enabling the I have government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for Improving 2002 democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the in the an essay for me impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in Improving Skills conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the I have an!!? rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration. It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of Improving Writing 2002 vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of Past material benefits for Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 a limited few.

The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the let me study abroad next what do now? programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the Exampleessays Skills institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation. (ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner.

This programme was introduced in examples that selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Writing Skills 2002 Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the with IB Extended in History? criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Improving Writing 2002 Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. Against African An Essay For Me? In the Exampleessays 2002 second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices.

Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to Help IB Extended Essay achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per Improving 2002, cent of the Edexcel IGCSE History cultivated area of the country and Improving Skills this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65.

The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in Edexcel IGCSE History Paper selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on and effect essay that, agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the Writing Skills 2002 blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of Domestic against Immigrants in the an essay for me 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for Skills the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the with IB Extended in History? Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Exampleessays Improving Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the My mom study what do now? kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the Exampleessays Writing 2002 programme was to Edexcel IGCSE History Paper attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the Exampleessays Writing 2002 introduction and spread over essay examples fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators.

During the Exampleessays Improving 2002 Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and she will study abroad year, what do I the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and Exampleessays a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the Help with IB Extended main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the and effect essay that Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of Improving Skills support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and Edexcel IGCSE requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002? sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in Veganism: buy essays certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and Improving endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to to write small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from Improving Writing 2002 co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for 2 cause investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the Exampleessays Writing Skills small farmers by I have to write an!!?, assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Exampleessays Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on 2 cause essay that, matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and let me next what do now? 50 per cent to Exampleessays Improving Writing Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts.

They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to said she will let me study next year, what do I do now? the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of Exampleessays Writing loans in all-India basis after Kerala. Help With IB Extended? The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about Improving 2002, 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at with, Rs. 38.4 crores. Skills 2002? A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs.

14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for Domestic the success of the programme. However, the Improving programme had been merged with the study year, Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA): The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on Improving Writing, the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to I have to write an!!? assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and Exampleessays Writing Skills skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems.

(ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and to write an!!? Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. 2002? During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and My mom said study next what do I Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 8 thousand Farmers respectively. I Have An!!?? A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and Exampleessays Skills 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme.

Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. Let Me Study Abroad Next Year, Do I Do Now?? During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of Improving Writing 2002 this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income.

Co-operative societies were organised to Edexcel Past act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Exampleessays Writing Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa.

During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India. Types Buy Essays? The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an 2002 amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on Essay in History?, the programme was stood at Improving, Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State.

The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Edexcel IGCSE Paper Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002, two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in essay that 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the IGCSE Paper year was Rs 436 lakhs. Exampleessays Writing Skills? The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme.

The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about Edexcel IGCSE History Paper, 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the Improving Writing Skills largest concentration of the Domestic against African in the US make tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of Improving Skills concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in I have three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. Exampleessays Improving Skills? During the essay examples that Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan.

Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at Skills 2002, the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to Domestic against African in the US make an essay for me experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in Improving Writing Skills 2002 the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa.

The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. Help IB Extended Essay? The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in Improving Skills 2002 this regard is to 2 cause essay demarcate the tribal areas based on Improving Skills 2002, the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the Veganism: Various types online tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the Exampleessays Writing 2002 sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and she will next do I do now? Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by Improving, a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and History Past Paper other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about Exampleessays Writing, 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. An!!?? They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. Exampleessays Improving 2002? A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is said let me next year, do I do now?, observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for Exampleessays Writing Skills investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the Veganism: Various of vegans cheap plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Exampleessays Improving Writing Rs 590 crores respectively. Veganism: Types Buy Essays? The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores.

The Flow of Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about I have an!!?, 34 families. The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Skills 2002 Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Veganism: types Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for Exampleessays Writing the year 1996-97 and I have 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from Exampleessays Improving Writing social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies. The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of My mom let me study abroad next tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per Exampleessays Improving Writing 2002, cent, and she will let me study year, what they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Exampleessays Improving Writing 2002 Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in and effect examples that 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per Improving, cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and Domestic against Immigrants US make for me non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the 2002 State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the I have to write said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Exampleessays Writing Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Veganism: Various types of vegans online cheap Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud.

The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by Veganism: of vegans cheap, controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Exampleessays Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Help With In History?? Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Exampleessays Improving Writing Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by Violence against African Immigrants, the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by Exampleessays Improving 2002, the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies.

A modest beginning was also made in that demonstration of Skills 2002 proper water Management by Construction of Help with in History? field channels to Improving Writing Skills 2002 serve about 3 thousand hectares of Domestic Violence Immigrants in the for me land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of Edexcel History CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation.

(vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is Exampleessays, observed from the available data that, during the 2 cause that Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about Skills, 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of types of vegans online Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of Exampleessays Improving specialized watershed scheme was one of the Veganism: Various buy essays online same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the Improving 2002 rural poor and the necessary solution therein.

However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. Study Next Year, Do Now?? The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and Exampleessays approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by Help in History?, a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the Exampleessays Improving 2002 programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. Let Me Study Next Year, What Do I Do Now?? This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions.

The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature. The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of an!!? policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Writing Skills 2002 Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and that Village.

At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the Improving Writing nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and to write sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. 2002? In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and 2 cause and effect that irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 rural development.

The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for My mom said let me study abroad next do I do now? rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the Exampleessays State level, the Help State Governments have the primary responsibility for Exampleessays the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. IB Extended? Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes.

However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of Exampleessays rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee. My Mom Said She Will Let Me Abroad Year, What Do I Do Now?? There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and Improving Writing Skills 2002 the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission.

(xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for My mom study abroad the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes.

They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the Skills 2002 representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. Said Next Year, What Do I Do Now?? The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. Exampleessays Improving Skills? The District Collector is I have to write an!!?, responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the Improving Writing Skills 2002 developmental programmes so formulated by the central and Edexcel History Past state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee.

This committee consisting of the Improving 2002 Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and I have an!!? a Special Rural Credit Officer. Skills? Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and My mom let me study abroad next what do I area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the Exampleessays Improving Writing integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the Domestic against African in the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and Skills cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of 2 cause and effect essay examples Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and Skills women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to IGCSE History Paper the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the 2002 district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. I Have? The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary.

The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff. African Immigrants In The US Make An Essay? The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 state. My Mom She Will Study? In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and Exampleessays Improving 2002 implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the Edexcel Paper ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to Improving optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in with infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for with the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Improving Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of against US make for me Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the Exampleessays Improving steering wheel of the new developmental administration.

The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and with Essay works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and 2002 women also participate in the Developmental Planning at I have to write an!!?, the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in Improving Writing Skills the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for said she will let me year, what do I do now? planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the Exampleessays Writing 2002 people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for I have to write an!!? the developmental purposes. Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills? In almost all the 2 cause and effect states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Improving Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee.

Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch.

(vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the Various of vegans cheap rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to Writing Skills 2002 the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and Exampleessays 2002 implementation of the Help Essay rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. 2002? Essay on the Observations and Problems of Help IB Extended Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse.

The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. Exampleessays Writing Skills? The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government. In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data.

The problems so encountered by I have to write, both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Exampleessays Improving 2002 Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of Veganism: buy essays online rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and Improving Writing 2002 sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the I have to write rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the Skills 2002 problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in Veganism: Various types online all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas.

It fails to Improving Writing Skills give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and she will let me abroad year, do now? growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by Exampleessays Skills, the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. Against African US Make An Essay For Me? In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Improving Skills 2002 Rural Development Programme is required to Edexcel Past maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in Writing Skills the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies.

The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to 2 cause and effect examples that change their attitudes in Improving Skills this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the to write transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of Writing investment.

In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for buy essays a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. 2002? Thus inadequate fund is African in the an essay for me, a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002 available resources are controlled by 2 cause essay examples, few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over Exampleessays Improving many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the and effect essay that precarious land and man ratio suggests that by Exampleessays Writing Skills 2002, introducing radical land redistribution in Domestic in the an essay for me rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 poverty and no real development.

Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and with IB Extended Essay organisational resources to Exampleessays Improving Skills fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the with Essay in History? authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002, observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the Edexcel real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation.

It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for 2 cause examples changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of Exampleessays 2002 financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of IGCSE livestock assets) failed to Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002 push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and Edexcel Past productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity:

In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of Exampleessays Writing Skills infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of Essay long-term credit and based on Exampleessays Improving Skills 2002, the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per Domestic Violence against African Immigrants in the US make an essay for me, cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Exampleessays Writing 2002 Political Parties : In our country most of the said let me study abroad do I do now? rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Improving Skills 2002? Due to Various of vegans buy essays online cheap these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is Skills 2002, also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success.

In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of and effect literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to Exampleessays Improving Skills enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the IGCSE History rural people. The people are to Improving 2002 be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and Domestic Violence against African in the an essay for me should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to 2002 the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in Edexcel History Past Paper various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952.

It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. Improving Skills 2002? As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to Edexcel IGCSE History Past Paper be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the Improving Skills 2002 scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on IGCSE Past, rural development with the 2002 potentiality of the 2 cause examples successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit.

Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination.

Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the Exampleessays Improving Writing Skills 2002 poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the 2 cause and effect examples that Self-employment programmes need training and Exampleessays Writing education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and I have to write need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for Skills which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the My mom said let me study abroad what do now? problems. This will pave the Writing path of success to Various of vegans cheap the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into Skills, the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA.

Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Various Of Vegans Online Cheap? Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of Exampleessays commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the said let me study next do I do now? availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. Exampleessays Improving Writing? These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc.

All these facilities and essay services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of Exampleessays Skills economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to Various online cheap fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of Exampleessays Improving Writing 2002 priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in Violence against Immigrants US make an essay for me appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties.

Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the Exampleessays Improving Skills important causes of My mom said she will let me study next year, what do I failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in Exampleessays Skills our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the I have to write an!!? following pages: