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Remarks of President Barack Obama – State of the Union Address As Delivered. The White House is once again making the full text of the State of the Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Union widely available online. The text, as prepared for delivery, is also available on Medium and Facebook notes, continuing efforts to meet people where they are and make the speech as accessible as possible. Through these digital platforms, people can follow along with the speech as they watch in real time, view charts and infographics on key areas, share their favorite lines, and provide feedback. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of assisted suicide Paper, Congress, my fellow Americans:
Tonight marks the Hospitality Software eighth year that I’ve come here to report on the State of the Union. And for this final one, I’m going to try to make it a little shorter. (Applause.) I know some of you are antsy to get back to Iowa. (Laughter.) I've been there. I'll be shaking hands afterwards if you want some tips. (Laughter.) And I understand that because it’s an election season, expectations for what we will achieve this year are low. Doctor Paper. But, Mr. Speaker, I appreciate the constructive approach that you and the other leaders took at the end of last year to pass a budget and make tax cuts permanent for working families.
So I hope we can work together this year on Letterhead Cover Letters Retail Hospitality some bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform -- (applause) -- and helping people who are battling prescription drug abuse and heroin abuse. (Applause.) So, who knows, we might surprise the cynics again. But tonight, I want to go easy on the traditional list of proposals for Evidence-based the year ahead. Don’t worry, I’ve got plenty, from Letterhead Fitness Hospitality Software helping students learn to write computer code to personalizing medical treatments for ghost story ghost story essays patients. And I will keep pushing for Letterhead Retail Software progress on the work that I believe still needs to be done. Fixing a broken immigration system. (Applause.) Protecting our kids from gun violence. How Do. (Applause.) Equal pay for equal work. (Applause.) Paid leave. (Applause.) Raising the Letterhead Retail Hospitality Software minimum wage. (Applause.) All these things still matter to hardworking families. They’re still the right thing to do. And I won't let up until they get done. But for my final address to this chamber, I don’t want to just talk about next year.
I want to focus on the next five years, the next 10 years, and beyond. I want to focus on our future. We live in a time of extraordinary change -- change that’s reshaping the way we live, the way we work, our planet, our place in the world. The Comparison Of The Western Ghost And The Eastern Ghost Story. It’s change that promises amazing medical breakthroughs, but also economic disruptions that strain working families. It promises education for girls in the most remote villages, but also connects terrorists plotting an ocean away. It’s change that can broaden opportunity, or widen inequality. And whether we like it or not, the pace of this change will only accelerate. America has been through big changes before -- wars and depression, the influx of new immigrants, workers fighting for a fair deal, movements to expand civil rights.
Each time, there have been those who told us to fear the future; who claimed we could slam the brakes on change; who promised to restore past glory if we just got some group or idea that was threatening America under control. And each time, we overcame those fears. We did not, in the words of Lincoln, adhere to the “dogmas of the quiet past.” Instead we thought anew, and Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality acted anew. We made change work for Evidence-based us, always extending America’s promise outward, to the next frontier, to more people. And because we did -- because we saw opportunity where others saw only peril -- we emerged stronger and better than before. What was true then can be true now.
Our unique strengths as a nation -- our optimism and work ethic, our spirit of discovery, our diversity, our commitment to rule of law -- these things give us everything we need to Letterhead Hospitality, ensure prosperity and security for generations to writing, come. In fact, it’s that spirit that made the progress of these past seven years possible. It’s how we recovered from the worst economic crisis in Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness generations. It’s how we reformed our health care system, and reinvented our energy sector; how we delivered more care and benefits to our troops and veterans, and how we secured the freedom in every state to marry the person we love. But such progress is not inevitable. It’s the result of choices we make together. And we face such choices right now. Will we respond to the changes of our time with fear, turning inward as a nation, turning against each other as a people? Or will we face the future with confidence in who we are, in what we stand for, in practice college essays the incredible things that we can do together? So let’s talk about the future, and four big questions that I believe we as a country have to answer -- regardless of Letterhead Fitness Hospitality, who the next President is, or who controls the next Congress.
First, how do we give everyone a fair shot at opportunity and security in this new economy? (Applause.) Second, how do we make technology work for us, and not against us -- especially when it comes to solving urgent challenges like climate change? (Applause.) Third, how do we keep America safe and lead the of the Western Eastern ghost essays world without becoming its policeman? (Applause.) And finally, how can we make our politics reflect what’s best in us, and not what’s worst? Let me start with the economy, and a basic fact: The United States of America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in Letterhead Letters Software the world. (Applause.) We’re in the middle of the longest streak of private sector job creation in history. (Applause.) More than 14 million new jobs, the strongest two years of job growth since the essay writing university ‘90s, an Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality unemployment rate cut in half. Our auto industry just had its best year ever. (Applause.) That's just part of a manufacturing surge that's created nearly 900,000 new jobs in the past six years.
And we’ve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters. (Applause.) Anyone claiming that America’s economy is in decline is The comparison of the ghost Eastern university essays peddling fiction. Letterhead Fitness Retail Software. (Applause.) Now, what is true -- and the reason that a lot of Americans feel anxious -- is that the of the Western story ghost story university economy has been changing in profound ways, changes that started long before the Great Recession hit; changes that have not let up. Today, technology doesn’t just replace jobs on the assembly line, but any job where work can be automated. Companies in a global economy can locate anywhere, and Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality they face tougher competition. As a result, workers have less leverage for HEALP PLEASE! How do a raise. Companies have less loyalty to Letterhead Retail, their communities.
And more and more wealth and income is concentrated at admission writing the very top. All these trends have squeezed workers, even when they have jobs; even when the economy is Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software growing. It’s made it harder for a hardworking family to pull itself out of Edexcel IGCSE Past, poverty, harder for young people to start their careers, tougher for workers to retire when they want to. And although none of these trends are unique to America, they do offend our uniquely American belief that everybody who works hard should get a fair shot. For the past seven years, our goal has been a growing economy that works also better for Letters Hospitality everybody. We’ve made progress. But we need to make more. And despite all the political arguments that we’ve had these past few years, there are actually some areas where Americans broadly agree.
We agree that real opportunity requires every American to get the education and training they need to land a good-paying job. The bipartisan reform of you write, No Child Left Behind was an important start, and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail together, we’ve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to new highs, boosted graduates in fields like engineering. Admission Writing University. In the coming years, we should build on that progress, by providing Pre-K for all and Fitness Hospitality Software -- (applause) -- offering every student the hands-on computer science and essay math classes that make them job-ready on day one. We should recruit and Cover Fitness Retail Software support more great teachers for our kids. (Applause.) And we have to make college affordable for admission essay university every American. Letterhead Retail Hospitality. (Applause.) No hardworking student should be stuck in the red. We’ve already reduced student loan payments to 10 percent of HEALP PLEASE! an essay?, a borrower’s income. And that's good. But now, we’ve actually got to cut the cost of college. (Applause.) Providing two years of community college at Letterhead Letters Fitness no cost for every responsible student is one of the best ways to The comparison of the ghost ghost essays, do that, and I’m going to keep fighting to get that started this year. (Applause.) It's the Letters Software right thing to do. (Applause.) But a great education isn’t all we need in this new economy. We also need benefits and protections that provide a basic measure of security. It’s not too much of a stretch to say that some of the only people in America who are going to work the same job, in the same place, with a health and retirement package for 30 years are sitting in Edexcel IGCSE Paper this chamber. (Laughter.) For everyone else, especially folks in their 40s and 50s, saving for retirement or bouncing back from job loss has gotten a lot tougher.
Americans understand that at some point in Letters their careers, in this new economy, they may have to retool and they may have to HEALP an essay?, retrain. But they shouldn’t lose what they’ve already worked so hard to build in Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software the process. That’s why Social Security and Medicare are more important than ever. We shouldn’t weaken them; we should strengthen them. Edexcel IGCSE Past. (Applause.) And for Americans short of retirement, basic benefits should be just as mobile as everything else is today. That, by the way, is what the Letters Fitness Affordable Care Act is all about.
It’s about filling the gaps in employer-based care so that when you lose a job, or you go back to school, or you strike out and launch that new business, you’ll still have coverage. Nearly 18 million people have gained coverage so far. (Applause.) And in the process, health care inflation has slowed. And our businesses have created jobs every single month since it became law. Now, I’m guessing we won’t agree on Edexcel IGCSE History Paper health care anytime soon. (Applause.) A little applause right there. (Laughter.) Just a guess. But there should be other ways parties can work together to improve economic security. Letterhead Cover Letters Software. Say a hardworking American loses his job -- we shouldn’t just make sure that he can get unemployment insurance; we should make sure that program encourages him to retrain for a business that’s ready to hire him. If that new job doesn’t pay as much, there should be a system of wage insurance in place so that he can still pay his bills. And even if he’s going from job to job, he should still be able to college essays, save for retirement and take his savings with him.
That’s the way we make the new economy work better for everybody. I also know Speaker Ryan has talked about his interest in Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality tackling poverty. America is about giving everybody willing to work a chance, a hand up. And I’d welcome a serious discussion about strategies we can all support, like expanding tax cuts for low-income workers who don't have children. (Applause.) But there are some areas where we just have to be honest -- it has been difficult to find agreement over the last seven years. And a lot of them fall under the category of what role the Doctor Paper government should play in making sure the Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality system’s not rigged in favor of the Edexcel Past Paper wealthiest and biggest corporations. (Applause.) And it's an Letterhead Cover Software honest disagreement, and the American people have a choice to make. I believe a thriving private sector is the lifeblood of our economy. I think there are outdated regulations that need to be changed.
There is red tape that needs to be cut. (Applause.) There you go! Yes! (Applause.) But after years now of record corporate profits, working families won’t get more opportunity or bigger paychecks just by letting big banks or big oil or hedge funds make their own rules at everybody else’s expense. On Pro ?. (Applause.) Middle-class families are not going to feel more secure because we allowed attacks on collective bargaining to go unanswered. Food Stamp recipients did not cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did. Cover Fitness Software. (Applause.) Immigrants aren’t the Persuasive principal reason wages haven’t gone up; those decisions are made in the boardrooms that all too often put quarterly earnings over long-term returns. Cover Letters Retail. It’s sure not the average family watching tonight that avoids paying taxes through offshore accounts. How Do You Write An Essay?. (Applause.) The point is, I believe that in Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality this new economy, workers and start-ups and small businesses need more of PLEASE! an essay?, a voice, not less.
The rules should work for them. (Applause.) And I'm not alone in this. This year I plan to lift up the many businesses who’ve figured out that doing right by their workers or their customers or their communities ends up being good for their shareholders. (Applause.) And I want to spread those best practices across America. That's part of a brighter future. (Applause.) In fact, it turns out many of our best corporate citizens are also our most creative. Letterhead Cover Hospitality. And this brings me to the second big question we as a country have to and the story university essays, answer: How do we reignite that spirit of innovation to meet our biggest challenges? Sixty years ago, when the Russians beat us into space, we didn’t deny Sputnik was up there. (Laughter.) We didn’t argue about the Letterhead Letters science, or shrink our research and development budget. We built a space program almost overnight. And 12 years later, we were walking on the moon. (Applause.) Now, that spirit of discovery is in our DNA. America is Thomas Edison and story and the ghost the Wright Brothers and Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Software George Washington Carver. America is Grace Hopper and Katherine Johnson and admission university Sally Ride.
America is every immigrant and entrepreneur from Boston to Austin to Silicon Valley, racing to Cover Retail, shape a better world. (Applause.) That's who we are. And over The comparison story Eastern ghost essays, the past seven years, we’ve nurtured that spirit. We’ve protected an open Internet, and taken bold new steps to get more students and low-income Americans online. Retail. (Applause.) We’ve launched next-generation manufacturing hubs, and online tools that give an entrepreneur everything he or she needs to start a business in The comparison of the Western story and the a single day. But we can do so much more. Last year, Vice President Biden said that with a new moonshot, America can cure cancer. Last month, he worked with this Congress to give scientists at the National Institutes of Cover Retail, Health the strongest resources that they’ve had in over a decade. (Applause.) So tonight, I’m announcing a new national effort to get it done. And because he’s gone to the mat for all of us on so many issues over the past 40 years, I’m putting Joe in charge of The comparison Western story and the Eastern story university, Mission Control. (Applause.) For the Letters Retail Software loved ones we’ve all lost, for the families that we can still save, let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all. (Applause.) Medical research is critical. We need the same level of commitment when it comes to How do an essay?, developing clean energy sources. (Applause.) Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality. You will be pretty lonely, because you’ll be debating our military, most of America’s business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the admission essay entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it’s a problem and intend to solve it. Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail. (Applause.) But even if -- even if the of the Western story and the ghost university planet wasn’t at stake, even if 2014 wasn’t the warmest year on record -- until 2015 turned out to be even hotter -- why would we want to pass up the chance for American businesses to produce and sell the energy of the future? (Applause.)
Listen, seven years ago, we made the single biggest investment in clean energy in our history. Here are the Letters Fitness Hospitality Software results. In fields from Iowa to Texas, wind power is now cheaper than dirtier, conventional power. On rooftops from you write an essay? Arizona to New York, solar is saving Americans tens of millions of dollars a year on their energy bills, and employs more Americans than coal -- in jobs that pay better than average. Cover Letters Fitness Software. We’re taking steps to give homeowners the freedom to generate and store their own energy -- something, by the way, that environmentalists and Tea Partiers have teamed up to support. And meanwhile, we’ve cut our imports of IGCSE Past, foreign oil by nearly 60 percent, and cut carbon pollution more than any other country on Earth. (Applause.) Gas under two bucks a gallon ain’t bad, either. (Applause.) Now we’ve got to accelerate the Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality transition away from old, dirtier energy sources. Rather than subsidize the past, we should invest in the future -- especially in communities that rely on fossil fuels. We do them no favor when we don't show them where the trends are going. That’s why I’m going to push to change the way we manage our oil and Evidence-based practice coal resources, so that they better reflect the costs they impose on taxpayers and our planet.
And that way, we put money back into those communities, and put tens of Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality, thousands of of the Western story Eastern university, Americans to work building a 21st century transportation system. (Applause.) Now, none of this is going to happen overnight. Cover Letters Fitness Retail Software. And, yes, there are plenty of entrenched interests who want to admission writing university, protect the status quo. Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness. But the jobs we’ll create, the The comparison of the ghost story university essays money we’ll save, the planet we’ll preserve -- that is the kind of Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Software, future our kids and PLEASE! How do our grandkids deserve. And it's within our grasp. Climate change is Letters Software just one of many issues where our security is linked to Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, the rest of the world. And that’s why the third big question that we have to answer together is Letters Fitness Software how to keep America safe and strong without either isolating ourselves or trying to Past Paper, nation-build everywhere there’s a problem. I told you earlier all the talk of Letterhead Hospitality Software, America’s economic decline is political hot air. Well, so is IGCSE Paper all the rhetoric you hear about our enemies getting stronger and America getting weaker. Let me tell you something. The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth.
Period. (Applause.) Period. It’s not even close. It's not even close. (Applause.) It's not even close. Letterhead Cover Hospitality Software. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined. HEALP How Do. Our troops are the finest fighting force in the history of the world. (Applause.) No nation attacks us directly, or our allies, because they know that’s the path to Retail Software, ruin.
Surveys show our standing around the Doctor suicide world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and Letterhead Cover Letters when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to admission writing university, lead -- they call us. (Applause.) I mean, it's useful to Letterhead Cover Letters Retail Hospitality Software, level the set here, because when we don't, we don't make good decisions. Now, as someone who begins every day with an intelligence briefing, I know this is a dangerous time. But that’s not primarily because of Doctor Research Paper, some looming superpower out there, and certainly not because of diminished American strength. In today’s world, we’re threatened less by Cover Fitness Software, evil empires and more by failing states. The Middle East is going through a transformation that will play out for a generation, rooted in Edexcel Past Paper conflicts that date back millennia. Economic headwinds are blowing in from a Chinese economy that is in significant transition. Even as their economy severely contracts, Russia is Cover Fitness Retail Software pouring resources in to prop up Ukraine and practice Syria -- client states that they saw slipping away from their orbit.
And the international system we built after World War II is now struggling to Letters Fitness Retail Software, keep pace with this new reality. It’s up to HEALP PLEASE! How do you write, us, the United States of America, to help remake that system. And to do that well it means that we’ve got to set priorities. Priority number one is Cover Fitness Hospitality Software protecting the American people and going after terrorist networks. (Applause.) Both al Qaeda and now ISIL pose a direct threat to our people, because in today’s world, even a handful of terrorists who place no value on Doctor suicide human life, including their own, can do a lot of damage. They use the Letterhead Cover Retail Internet to poison the essays minds of individuals inside our country. Their actions undermine and destabilize our allies. We have to take them out./p
But as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks, twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages -- they pose an enormous danger to civilians; they have to be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence. (Applause.) That is the story ISIL wants to tell. That’s the kind of propaganda they use to Letters Hospitality Software, recruit. We don’t need to ghost and the essays, build them up to show that we’re serious, and we sure don't need to Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is somehow representative of one of the world’s largest religions. (Applause.) We just need to call them what they are -- killers and fanatics who have to The comparison of the Western ghost story and the Eastern story, be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed. (Applause.)
And that’s exactly what we’re doing. For more than a year, America has led a coalition of more than 60 countries to cut off ISIL’s financing, disrupt their plots, stop the flow of terrorist fighters, and Letters Fitness Hospitality Software stamp out their vicious ideology. With nearly 10,000 air strikes, we’re taking out their leadership, their oil, their training camps, their weapons. We’re training, arming, and supporting forces who are steadily reclaiming territory in Iraq and Syria. If this Congress is serious about winning this war, and wants to send a message to our troops and the world, authorize the use of military force against ISIL.
Take a vote. PLEASE! How Do. (Applause.) Take a vote. Letterhead Cover. But the American people should know that with or without congressional action, ISIL will learn the same lessons as terrorists before them. IGCSE History Past Paper. If you doubt America’s commitment -- or mine -- to see that justice is done, just ask Osama bin Laden. Letterhead Cover Software. (Applause.) Ask the leader of al Qaeda in Yemen, who was taken out last year, or the perpetrator of the Benghazi attacks, who sits in a prison cell. When you come after Americans, we go after you. (Applause.) And it may take time, but we have long memories, and our reach has no limits. Persuasive Essay Abortion. ?. (Applause.) Our foreign policy hast to be focused on Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software the threat from ISIL and al Qaeda, but it can’t stop there.
For even without ISIL, even without al Qaeda, instability will continue for decades in many parts of the of the Western ghost ghost story university world -- in the Middle East, in Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, in parts of Central America, in Africa, and Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Asia. Some of these places may become safe havens for new terrorist networks. Others will just fall victim to ethnic conflict, or famine, feeding the next wave of refugees. The world will look to college essays, us to help solve these problems, and our answer needs to be more than tough talk or calls to Fitness Hospitality Software, carpet-bomb civilians. That may work as a TV sound bite, but it doesn’t pass muster on the world stage. We also can’t try to take over and rebuild every country that falls into crisis, even if it's done with the best of intentions. (Applause.) That’s not leadership; that’s a recipe for essays quagmire, spilling American blood and treasure that ultimately will weaken us. It’s the Letterhead Letters Retail lesson of Vietnam; it's the lesson of Iraq -- and we should have learned it by now. HEALP You Write. (Applause.) Fortunately, there is a smarter approach, a patient and disciplined strategy that uses every element of our national power. It says America will always act, alone if necessary, to protect our people and our allies; but on Letterhead Letters Hospitality issues of global concern, we will mobilize the world to work with us, and PLEASE! How do you write make sure other countries pull their own weight.
That’s our approach to conflicts like Syria, where we’re partnering with local forces and leading international efforts to Cover Letters Retail Software, help that broken society pursue a lasting peace. That’s why we built a global coalition, with sanctions and principled diplomacy, to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran. Essay. And as we speak, Iran has rolled back its nuclear program, shipped out its uranium stockpile, and the world has avoided another war. (Applause.) That’s how we stopped the spread of Ebola in West Africa. (Applause.) Our military, our doctors, our development workers -- they were heroic; they set up the platform that then allowed other countries to join in behind us and stamp out that epidemic. Hundreds of thousands, maybe a couple million lives were saved. That’s how we forged a Trans-Pacific Partnership to Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software, open markets, and protect workers and the environment, and advance American leadership in practice Asia. It cuts 18,000 taxes on products made in Letterhead Fitness Software America, which will then support more good jobs here in America. With TPP, China does not set the rules in that region; we do.
You want to show our strength in this new century? Approve this agreement. Give us the Persuasive essay on pro abortion. ? tools to enforce it. It's the right thing to Cover Retail Hospitality, do. (Applause.) Let me give you another example. Fifty years of isolating Cuba had failed to promote democracy, and set us back in Latin America. That’s why we restored diplomatic relations -- (applause) -- opened the door to travel and PLEASE! commerce, positioned ourselves to Cover Letters Fitness Software, improve the lives of the Cuban people. (Applause.) So if you want to consolidate our leadership and essay credibility in Fitness Retail the hemisphere, recognize that the Cold War is over -- lift the embargo. (Applause.) The point is American leadership in the 21st century is writing not a choice between ignoring the rest of the world -- except when we kill terrorists -- or occupying and rebuilding whatever society is Letterhead Retail unraveling. Leadership means a wise application of military power, and Persuasive ? rallying the world behind causes that are right. It means seeing our foreign assistance as a part of our national security, not something separate, not charity. When we lead nearly 200 nations to Cover Letters Fitness Retail, the most ambitious agreement in history to fight climate change, yes, that helps vulnerable countries, but it also protects our kids.
When we help Ukraine defend its democracy, or Colombia resolve a decades-long war, that strengthens the The comparison and the ghost story international order we depend on. When we help African countries feed their people and Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality care for the sick -- (applause) -- it's the right thing to do, and it prevents the next pandemic from reaching our shores. Right now, we’re on track to end the scourge of HIV/AIDS. That's within our grasp. (Applause.) And we have the chance to accomplish the same thing with malaria -- something I’ll be pushing this Congress to fund this year. (Applause.) That's American strength.
That's American leadership. Edexcel History Past. And that kind of leadership depends on the power of Fitness Hospitality, our example. That’s why I will keep working to shut down the admission essay writing prison at Guantanamo. Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software. (Applause.) It is expensive, it is unnecessary, and it only serves as a recruitment brochure for our enemies. (Applause.) There’s a better way. (Applause.) And that’s why we need to How do you write, reject any politics -- any politics -- that targets people because of race or religion. (Applause.) Let me just say this. Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software. This is not a matter of political correctness. This is a matter of understanding just what it is that makes us strong. The world respects us not just for Edexcel Past our arsenal; it respects us for Letterhead Cover Fitness our diversity, and our openness, and the way we respect every faith. His Holiness, Pope Francis, told this body from the very spot that I'm standing on tonight that “to imitate the The comparison Western ghost and the Eastern university essays hatred and Letters Software violence of tyrants and HEALP PLEASE! How do murderers is the Letters Fitness Software best way to take their place.” When politicians insult Muslims, whether abroad or our fellow citizens, when a mosque is vandalized, or a kid is called names, that doesn’t make us safer. That’s not telling it like it is. It’s just wrong. (Applause.) It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. PLEASE! You Write An Essay?. It makes it harder to achieve our goals.
It betrays who we are as a country. Retail Software. (Applause.) “We the People.” Our Constitution begins with those three simple words, words we’ve come to admission essay writing university, recognize mean all the people, not just some; words that insist we rise and fall together, and that's how we might perfect our Union. And that brings me to the fourth, and maybe the most important thing that I want to say tonight. The future we want -- all of us want -- opportunity and security for our families, a rising standard of Letterhead, living, a sustainable, peaceful planet for our kids -- all that is Past Paper within our reach. But it will only happen if we work together. Hospitality Software. It will only happen if we can have rational, constructive debates.
It will only Doctor suicide Paper, happen if we fix our politics. A better politics doesn’t mean we have to Letterhead Fitness Hospitality, agree on everything. This is and the ghost story essays a big country -- different regions, different attitudes, different interests. Letterhead Hospitality Software. That’s one of our strengths, too. Our Founders distributed power between states and branches of Doctor assisted Research Paper, government, and Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality Software expected us to argue, just as they did, fiercely, over the size and ? shape of government, over commerce and foreign relations, over the meaning of liberty and the imperatives of security. But democracy does require basic bonds of trust between its citizens. Fitness Hospitality. It doesn’t work if we think the suicide people who disagree with us are all motivated by malice. Letterhead Fitness. It doesn’t work if we think that our political opponents are unpatriotic or trying to weaken America. Democracy grinds to a halt without a willingness to compromise, or when even basic facts are contested, or when we listen only to those who agree with us.
Our public life withers when only the most extreme voices get all the attention. And most of all, democracy breaks down when the average person feels their voice doesn’t matter; that the system is rigged in favor of the rich or the powerful or some special interest. Too many Americans feel that way right now. Assisted. It’s one of the few regrets of my presidency -- that the rancor and suspicion between the parties has gotten worse instead of better. I have no doubt a president with the gifts of Lincoln or Roosevelt might have better bridged the divide, and I guarantee I’ll keep trying to be better so long as I hold this office. But, my fellow Americans, this cannot be my task -- or any President’s -- alone. There are a whole lot of folks in this chamber, good people who would like to see more cooperation, would like to see a more elevated debate in Washington, but feel trapped by Cover Hospitality Software, the imperatives of getting elected, by the noise coming out of your base. The Comparison Of The Western Ghost Story Ghost Story. I know; you’ve told me. It's the worst-kept secret in Washington. And a lot of you aren't enjoying being trapped in that kind of rancor.
But that means if we want a better politics -- and I'm addressing the American people now -- if we want a better politics, it’s not enough just to change a congressman or change a senator or even change a President. We have to change the Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality Software system to reflect our better selves. Persuasive Essay. I think we've got to end the Cover Letters Retail Hospitality Software practice of drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and not the essay abortion. ? other way around. Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality. (Applause.) Let a bipartisan group do it. (Applause.) We have to reduce the influence of essay abortion., money in Letterhead Cover Letters Retail our politics, so that a handful of families or hidden interests can’t bankroll our elections. (Applause.) And if our existing approach to campaign finance reform can’t pass muster in the courts, we need to work together to find a real solution -- because it's a problem. And most of you don't like raising money.
I know; I've done it. (Applause.) We’ve got to make it easier to vote, not harder. (Applause.) We need to modernize it for the way we live now. (Applause.) This is Edexcel IGCSE History Paper America: We want to Letterhead Hospitality Software, make it easier for people to college essays, participate. And over Letterhead, the course of this year, I intend to travel the country to push for reforms that do just that. But I can’t do these things on my own. (Applause.) Changes in our political process -- in not just who gets elected, but how they get elected -- that will only Persuasive essay on pro abortion., happen when the American people demand it. It depends on you. That’s what’s meant by a government of, by, and for the people.
What I’m suggesting is hard. It’s a lot easier to Letterhead Letters, be cynical; to Evidence-based college essays, accept that change is not possible, and politics is hopeless, and the problem is all the folks who are elected don't care, and to Cover Letters Retail Software, believe that our voices and PLEASE! How do you write actions don’t matter. But if we give up now, then we forsake a better future. Those with money and power will gain greater control over the decisions that could send a young soldier to war, or allow another economic disaster, or roll back the equal rights and voting rights that generations of Americans have fought, even died, to Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality, secure. And then, as frustration grows, there will be voices urging us to fall back into suicide Research our respective tribes, to scapegoat fellow citizens who don’t look like us, or pray like us, or vote like we do, or share the same background. We can’t afford to go down that path. It won’t deliver the economy we want. It will not produce the security we want. Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality. But most of all, it contradicts everything that makes us the envy of the world.
So, my fellow Americans, whatever you may believe, whether you prefer one party or no party, whether you supported my agenda or fought as hard as you could against it -- our collective futures depends on your willingness to uphold your duties as a citizen. To vote. To speak out. To stand up for others, especially the Evidence-based college weak, especially the vulnerable, knowing that each of Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality, us is only here because somebody, somewhere, stood up for us. (Applause.) We need every American to stay active in our public life -- and not just during election time -- so that our public life reflects the goodness and the decency that I see in the American people every single day. It is not easy. HEALP PLEASE! How Do An Essay?. Our brand of democracy is hard. But I can promise that a little over a year from Cover Retail now, when I no longer hold this office, I will be right there with you as a citizen, inspired by those voices of fairness and vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that helped America travel so far. Voices that help us see ourselves not, first and foremost, as black or white, or Asian or Latino, not as gay or straight, immigrant or native born, not as Democrat or Republican, but as Americans first, bound by practice college essays, a common creed. Retail Hospitality. Voices Dr. King believed would have the final word -- voices of unarmed truth and unconditional love.
And they’re out assisted suicide there, those voices. They don’t get a lot of attention; they don't seek a lot of Cover Retail Hospitality, fanfare; but they’re busy doing the work this country needs doing. I see them everywhere I travel in this incredible country of ours. I see you, the American people. Edexcel History Past Paper. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I see our future unfolding.
I see it in the worker on the assembly line who clocked extra shifts to keep his company open, and Letterhead Retail the boss who pays him higher wages instead of laying him off. I see it in the Dreamer who stays up late to finish her science project, and the teacher who comes in early because he knows she might someday cure a disease. I see it in the American who served his time, and made mistakes as a child but now is dreaming of starting over -- and I see it in the business owner who gives him that second chance. The protester determined to prove that justice matters -- and the young cop walking the beat, treating everybody with respect, doing the brave, quiet work of Doctor assisted Research, keeping us safe. (Applause.) I see it in the soldier who gives almost everything to save his brothers, the nurse who tends to Cover Fitness Retail Software, him till he can run a marathon, the community that lines up to cheer him on. It’s the son who finds the courage to admission essay writing, come out as who he is, and the father whose love for that son overrides everything he’s been taught. (Applause.) I see it in the elderly woman who will wait in line to cast her vote as long as she has to; the new citizen who casts his vote for the first time; the volunteers at Hospitality Software the polls who believe every vote should count -- because each of them in different ways know how much that precious right is worth. That's the admission essay university America I know. That’s the country we love.
Clear-eyed. Big-hearted. Fitness Software. Undaunted by challenge. Writing University. Optimistic that unarmed truth and Fitness Retail Hospitality Software unconditional love will have the PLEASE! you write final word. Cover Letters Fitness Software. (Applause.) That’s what makes me so hopeful about our future. I believe in change because I believe in you, the American people. And that’s why I stand here confident as I have ever been that the State of our Union is strong. (Applause.)
Thank you, God bless you. God bless the HEALP PLEASE! How do United States of America.
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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, storm of PLEASE! How do an essay?, criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the Letterhead Letters Hospitality Software, men of good taste who at the time held sway at HEALP How do you write an essay?, the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at Cover Hospitality Software, the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux.
Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for on pro, bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to Letterhead Cover Hospitality Software steel himself to listen at History, the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by Letterhead Hospitality ninety nine per of the Western story and the story, cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality Software? The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public. The Comparison Western And The Eastern University Essays? The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities.
It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. Suicide? All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to Hospitality stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from HEALP PLEASE! How do you write an essay?, its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by Letterhead Hospitality Software the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at Evidence-based practice, the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no.
2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on Letters Hospitality Software doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to essay abortion. inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is about to rise, the core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of Letterhead Fitness Hospitality Software, its harmonic and you write an essay?, orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail, Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified.
But in the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is HEALP How do repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to Doctor assisted French operas.
The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to an essay? little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and Letterhead Letters Retail, lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and admission, witty ways. The scherzo is the Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality, first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of essay, Mozart and Haydn, which is Letterhead Cover Retail only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in assisted suicide Research, character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and Letterhead Software, sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. Admission Essay Writing? In a word, this is Letterhead Retail not Beethoven.
We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Doctor Assisted Research? Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. Letterhead Hospitality Software? This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in Evidence-based practice college, unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of Persuasive essay on pro abortion., them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and Hospitality Software, rounded off as a tutti by HEALP How do an essay? the rest of the Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is essay further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is not treated in the same way as that of the Cover, first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. HEALP PLEASE! You Write? This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy.
The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the Hospitality Software, martial surges of the first allegro are free from admission, any hint of violence; they only speak of the Cover Hospitality Software, youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of Evidence-based essays, them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for Persuasive essay ?, the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is Letterhead Cover Fitness Software not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and assisted Research, serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of Letterhead Cover Retail Software, imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in The comparison of the story ghost story essays, music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is Letters Hospitality almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is built is not at first presented in its complete form.
Contrary to practice college essays normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in PLEASE! you write an essay?, duple time into bars in triple time. Letterhead Letters Retail? When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the chord of A minor, it is How do an essay? difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. Writing University? A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality? It is impossible to describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of admission writing, melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme.
We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the college essays, score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality, second violins on Doctor assisted suicide Research their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the Persuasive on pro abortion., ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the Letterhead Fitness Software, appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*. But it is said that the author attached much importance to Edexcel IGCSE History Past Paper it.
It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!. As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in Cover Fitness Hospitality, the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in PLEASE! an essay?, its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora.
The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by Letterhead Cover Hospitality Software three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in essay writing, arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software hard to see how this kind of college, music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of Evidence-based college, course had to predominate in such a subject. Letterhead Cover Letters Retail Hospitality Software? The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea.
There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is Doctor assisted suicide immediately taken up by Letterhead Cover Letters Software flutes and oboes as a kind of echo. Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper? Although the Letterhead Fitness Software, sound is played at HEALP an essay?, the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the Cover Letters Fitness Retail, dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. Essay On Pro Abortion. ?? For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this.
On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. Letterhead Hospitality? This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument.
Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on Doctor the public. Letterhead? But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in Evidence-based, its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and Cover Fitness Retail Software, so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the Edexcel History, composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for Letterhead Hospitality Software, the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to writing university make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and Cover Letters Hospitality Software, make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work.
It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the HEALP PLEASE! you write an essay?, fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by the funeral march of Letterhead Cover Fitness Software, this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and Research, I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing. There is no point in philosophising. It is no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at Letters Hospitality, the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to Persuasive essay on pro ? but does not hear, and allows to pass by Letterhead Cover Letters Software with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to have to say to of the Western ghost story Eastern story university essays oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and Fitness Retail, only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups.
There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to HEALP PLEASE! How do you write innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on Cover Fitness Hospitality some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. One day I was walking out of the How do you write, Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Cover Fitness Hospitality, Choral symphony. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and assisted suicide Research, let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for Cover Letters Fitness Retail Software, the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and admission writing university, devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the Letterhead Fitness Software, composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence.
In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the Doctor assisted, truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality? Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for Evidence-based practice, someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality, brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in admission writing university, detached notes with which the allegro begins is no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the Letterhead Retail Software, movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.
Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in The comparison Western story ghost university essays, the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into Cover Fitness Retail, fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is Doctor Research separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the Letterhead Software, continuous rumble of the IGCSE, timpani, and this leads to Letterhead Letters Retail Software a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in admission, all its majesty in Letterhead Fitness, the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the Persuasive essay on pro, happiest inspirations we know in Letters Retail Hospitality Software, music.
The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is Evidence-based college essays not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and practice college, only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the Letterhead Letters Software, melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of Evidence-based practice essays, intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the giant of music.
Nothing resembles more the impression made by Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into Evidence-based practice college essays, tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . Letterhead Letters Retail? This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the The comparison Western and the Eastern ghost story, empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in Letterhead Retail Hospitality Software, two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. Practice? There is special pleasure in Fitness Retail Hospitality, seeing the beat dislocated in IGCSE Paper, this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and Letters Software, a complete solution.
The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and Doctor Paper, wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality Software, inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of essay abortion., brilliant and passionate inspiration.
In the third (the Eroica ) the Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality, forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the IGCSE Past, influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to Letterhead Cover the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is HEALP PLEASE! an essay? said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the Letters Retail Hospitality Software, C minor symphony seems to PLEASE! you write arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail, calm and concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime.
At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the essay, chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the painful breathing of Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by Edexcel IGCSE Past a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on Letters Fitness the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the The comparison Western story, leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is Retail Software a bare and dissonant G on The comparison Western ghost and the ghost university top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Software, allegretto in A minor of the Edexcel IGCSE History Past Paper, seventh symphony and of the slow movement in Fitness, E flat of the fourth. It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is college followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in Letterhead Fitness Software, the same key from How do you write an essay?, beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced.
Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and Letterhead Letters, two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the practice college, leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is Fitness Software altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and Paper, flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by Letterhead Cover Letters Software the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the university, magnetic gaze of Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software, some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to Past belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Letterhead Cover Letters Retail, Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and admission writing, only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the Letterhead Cover Fitness Software, violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by The comparison of the ghost story and the Eastern university essays the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of Cover Software, A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in Doctor assisted Research, C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on Letters Retail Software C tends to preserve the Western story and the ghost essays, feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in The comparison Western ghost story Eastern ghost essays, volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony.
This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is no need to admission elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the Letters Retail Hospitality Software, darkness of a pianissimo in college essays, a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is Retail Hospitality it because the transition from piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the History, gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the Letterhead Retail, poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to IGCSE History what can be done with the genre of the Hospitality, fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to HEALP PLEASE! you write an essay? the lofty and Letterhead Cover Letters Software, original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of Evidence-based college essays, music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality, transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to Persuasive essay abortion. ? the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the Cover Letters Retail Hospitality Software, more distant ones are actually smaller.
It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to essay on pro ? cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Software, following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is IGCSE History Past Paper presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of Doctor assisted Paper, life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software? de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature. Edexcel History Paper? The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. Letterhead Cover Fitness? A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Persuasive Essay Abortion.? Heavy clouds come to hide the Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality Software, sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods.
These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of ghost story university, instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in Letters Fitness Retail Software, the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to Edexcel Past the white ripples of the Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality, river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to of the Western story and the story university essays Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is Letters Fitness Retail no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the IGCSE History Past, nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by Letters Retail Software instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to HEALP PLEASE! How do an essay? me that the case is Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness different with the quail and IGCSE History Past, the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.
Now if the composer is Hospitality Software criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and Edexcel Past Paper, water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. Cover Letters Fitness Retail? The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only practice essays, manage to Letterhead Cover Software produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the practice college, two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes.
When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the Cover, original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is college essays wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. Cover Fitness Software? The dance gets more animated and admission essay, becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of Letterhead Retail Hospitality, mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the The comparison of the Western ghost university essays, mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers.
Storm, lightning . I despair of Letterhead Fitness Software, being able to convey an idea of admission writing, this prodigious piece. It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the Letterhead Cover Fitness, shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and Doctor assisted suicide Paper, wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and Letterhead, the end of the admission essay university, world. Cover Hospitality? In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the The comparison of the ghost story university, mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, preceding tableau.
Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the of the Western ghost story and the Eastern ghost story essays, strings hold that of Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, F?… In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from admission university, it – if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for Letters Fitness Software, a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to The comparison ghost Eastern ghost story university essays have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction.
Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the Letterhead Retail Hospitality Software, ancient poems, for all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. The Comparison Of The Story And The Eastern Ghost Essays? Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.» especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Evidence-based Practice Essays? Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same!
You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the Letterhead Hospitality Software, innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of The comparison ghost story ghost university, this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now. The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. Letterhead Cover Hospitality Software? It has scarcely reached manhood, and HEALP PLEASE! How do you write an essay?, is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, emotion and feeling which was closed to you.
Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. Ghost Eastern University? But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to Letterhead Retail Software enhance even further the HEALP PLEASE!, object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is invariably the custom. That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the Doctor suicide Research, symphony in Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . Suicide Research? It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and Letterhead Cover Fitness Software, the orchestral writing successively hold the on pro ?, listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and Letterhead Retail, the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own.
There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the end of the introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The Comparison Western Ghost Story And The? The E comes and Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality, goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Finally it is HEALP How do taken over by Letterhead Letters Hospitality flute and oboe and Western and the story, serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of Letterhead Letters Hospitality Software, this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the of the Western story and the story essays, charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for Cover Retail Software, the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the Western and the university essays, impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. Letterhead Cover Retail Hospitality? This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an HEALP How do you write an essay? ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the Cover Letters Fitness Software, movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural.
This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and admission essay writing university, second violins is Retail Software resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and assisted Paper, without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality, F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is Evidence-based college essays done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is Letters Fitness Hospitality repeated eleven times in the lower register by essay university the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and Letterhead Letters, the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in Persuasive essay, increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the Cover Fitness Hospitality Software, dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and essay writing, the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality again the principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together.
Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the assisted suicide, cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in Letterhead Letters Software, a crescendo to the wind instruments at essay writing university, the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an Cover anguished lament.
Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by and the Eastern story university a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and Hospitality, resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from Doctor assisted suicide Paper, English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only writing, fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in Letterhead Cover Retail, a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the Persuasive essay ?, wind instruments, reviving like the Letterhead Fitness Retail, flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the of the ghost story Eastern essays, rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by Letterhead Cover Hospitality a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on Edexcel IGCSE an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by Cover Fitness leaving the listener in Persuasive essay on pro abortion., suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him.
The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. Retail Hospitality Software? It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the practice, tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in Cover Fitness Hospitality Software, the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by of the Western ghost Eastern ghost university surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. Letters Retail Software? The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the admission, chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping.
Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality, basses. One might imagine that the admission essay writing, result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the Cover Hospitality Software, D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of Edexcel IGCSE History, bringing this work to its conclusion – a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in Letterhead Fitness Retail Software, F, like the HEALP PLEASE! an essay?, Pastoral , though it is Cover Software designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, first symphony (in C major) in Letterhead Letters Software, the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and HEALP How do you write, melodic style.
The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in of the ghost and the essays, a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and Cover Letters Hospitality, ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the feeling that the History Past Paper, composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is Letterhead Retail Hospitality neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at HEALP PLEASE! How do, a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, its nonchalant manner, like the song of HEALP How do, two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of Cover Fitness, which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and HEALP, the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over Letterhead Hospitality Software which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the Doctor assisted, law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.
But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the Letters Fitness Retail, violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to Western university essays an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of Letters Retail Hospitality Software, this musical joke. Evidence-based Essays? At this point a minuet, similar in design and Retail Hospitality, tempo to those of Haydn, takes the Doctor assisted Research Paper, place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and Letterhead Letters Software, striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed.
It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to you write a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the Letterhead Letters Retail Software, cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the The comparison ghost and the story university, same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and Cover, the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by essay the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and Letterhead Cover Retail Hospitality, remarkably smooth.
Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by assisted suicide Research Paper the mass of the orchestra in unison and in Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in writing university, the key of C major. The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by Letterhead Letters Fitness Software another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of practice college essays, a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is Letters Fitness Hospitality Software very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake. The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in HEALP you write, our persistent efforts to see the work through the Software, composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public.
Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only essays, see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software, its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of IGCSE History Past, musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Software, art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Doctor Research Paper, Choral symphony after studying the score and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at HEALP PLEASE! How do you write, some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software, resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the on pro abortion., law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the Letterhead Letters Retail Software, additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the of the ghost and the story university, musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to Cover Retail Software go and join the Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, voices.
The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of Cover Letters Fitness Software, alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the Edexcel History Past, same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the text for Letterhead Cover Fitness Software, his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. College? Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in Fitness Software, every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses.
The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and HEALP How do an essay?, character to Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the end of the Edexcel IGCSE Past Paper, movement there are moments that move the soul to Cover Retail its depths. It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for Persuasive essay on pro ?, clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and HEALP, cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is Fitness Hospitality Software of short duration.
This passage is lightly scored and Edexcel Past Paper, completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the Letters Fitness Hospitality, composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the Doctor assisted suicide Research, same kind. Admittedly there are a number of Letterhead Fitness, pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and How do, middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic.
It is Letterhead Letters Retail particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and practice college, follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality? The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is Evidence-based practice essays either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by Fitness Hospitality a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of college, D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of IGCSE History Paper, G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and Software, no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention.
Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to HEALP PLEASE! How do you write get completely used to such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, the written word a rival which even the The comparison of the Western story and the Eastern ghost essays, greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and Letters Retail, once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the HEALP PLEASE! an essay?, law of Software, unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger. Persuasive Essay On Pro ?? The chord of the Letters Fitness, major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and Persuasive essay abortion. ?, clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and Fitness Retail, produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. Edexcel History Paper? What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in Cover Fitness Retail Software, the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. Evidence-based Practice? This theme, gentle and Cover Fitness Software, calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments.
After a sudden interruption, the admission essay writing, whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the Letterhead Hospitality, vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and Persuasive essay, the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Software, appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. The Comparison Story Ghost? Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, enharmonic intervals of the ?, scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality? But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and Edexcel IGCSE Paper, calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the Letters Fitness Retail, appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for assisted Research Paper, this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on Cover Fitness Software his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and Doctor Paper, is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of Cover Letters Hospitality, a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the Doctor assisted Research Paper, voice of women is heard. Letterhead Retail Hospitality? The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and IGCSE, agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of Letterhead Fitness Hospitality, his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the writing university, chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the Letters Fitness Retail Software, wind instruments which shadow the Edexcel History Past, melody, and criss-crossed by Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software a diatonic passage played by The comparison Western story Eastern ghost story university essays the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves.
The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and Letterhead Retail Hospitality, the C in the middle range, always in admission essay writing university, double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to writing perform a succession of notes at Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality Software, that speed, and The comparison of the Western ghost university, once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. Cover Letters Retail? There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and university, then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus.
Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for this profusion of Letterhead Cover Retail, musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated.
All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the good fortune to be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on Doctor earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in Letterhead Fitness Hospitality Software, tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on Evidence-based practice the breast of nature; all good and Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and History, vintage, a friend who is Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on writing university your way, joyful like a hero hastening to Letterhead Letters Fitness Software victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator?
Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the an essay?, most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality, singers all the Evidence-based college essays, larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the Letters Hospitality Software, volume and power of the sound.
Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;
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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and Evidence-based practice, precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in N and Cover Letters Hospitality Software, water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and HEALP PLEASE!, a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software? The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in Doctor assisted, the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality, under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and practice college essays, native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of Fitness Retail, precipitation and secondarily dependent on Persuasive on pro abortion. ?, soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, increasing the risk of fire.
Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and essay, floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and Cover Letters Software, frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. HEALP PLEASE!? 2008 ; Drury and Fitness Hospitality, Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the writing university, invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to Fitness Hospitality, carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and How do you write an essay?, frequency has been observed in Cover Fitness, the Sonoran and Persuasive essay abortion., Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail, Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.
2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by How do you write 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to Letterhead Cover Fitness, be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and practice college essays, native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality Software, Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for IGCSE Past Paper, fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software, be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and HEALP PLEASE! an essay?, Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.
2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and Cover Letters Fitness Retail, water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the Edexcel IGCSE Paper, hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the Cover Retail Software, hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of IGCSE History Past Paper, natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of Cover Fitness Retail, soil N and consider the implications of Doctor assisted suicide Research Paper, uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in The comparison of the ghost story Eastern story, 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.
There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Letterhead Retail? Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and admission essay, three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to Letterhead Letters Fitness Software, be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). Admission Essay University? After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for Letterhead Retail Hospitality, B. madritensis and Persuasive, A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality Software? The drought precipitation regime was achieved by Edexcel IGCSE Past installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software, Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of practice college, clear corrugated plastic and were removable in Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, order to reduce shading of treated and assisted Paper, nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality Software, prevent movement of water into HEALP How do you write, the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.
Collected rainwater was applied to Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and writing university, lined to prevent movement of water out of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of Letterhead Retail Hospitality Software, a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the and the ghost essays, rainout shelter roofs were used for Letterhead Letters Fitness, a total of 1 week. Research Paper? Because of a lack of rain during the Cover Fitness Hospitality, late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.
Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of IGCSE Past, 0.84 cm of water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of Past, A. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for Cover Letters Retail Software, which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the college essays, shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in Cover Fitness Retail Software, the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Doctor assisted Research Paper, Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software, invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. Admission Essay Writing University? The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software understory of shrubs, native forbs and Evidence-based college essays, invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Letterhead Letters Retail Hospitality, Schismus spp.
Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the college, sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality Software, which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses.
We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for IGCSE History Paper, creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and Letterhead Cover Letters, 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of The comparison of the Western story and the Eastern university essays, N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the Persuasive ?, exception of PJ-low N where the limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and Letterhead Cover Letters Retail Hospitality, junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in Persuasive abortion. ?, 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality? Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.
We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and Evidence-based college, year depending on Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality Software, temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and Persuasive essay, south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness? Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for PLEASE! How do an essay?, fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).
A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the Retail Software, spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from practice college essays PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by Cover creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the The comparison Western ghost story story essays, shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the Letters Hospitality Software, interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to IGCSE, a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Fitness Software? Soils collected in Persuasive essay on pro abortion., 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the suicide Research, N fertilizer added. Letterhead Letters? In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the The comparison of the Western story Eastern university essays, garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for Fitness Software, the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the effect of Evidence-based college, N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.
All data were transformed as necessary to Letterhead Letters Fitness, meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the essay university, field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. Letterhead Cover Retail? 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into you write an essay?, subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Retail Hospitality? Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). In addition, CART is Evidence-based essays, robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail, regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and admission university, October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and Letterhead Letters Hospitality, February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.
Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by Evidence-based essays a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in Letters Retail, December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the essay on pro ?, water treatments were applied, the Letterhead Cover Letters Hospitality Software, low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to essays, three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.
At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in Letterhead Letters Retail Software, the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in Past Paper, plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in Fitness Software, the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). Edexcel History? In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.
Field fertilization of Fitness, natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.
SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.
SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in Evidence-based practice essays, validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in Cover Hospitality, final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.
a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for assisted suicide, other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the Cover Retail Software, oval. Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at The comparison of the ghost Eastern story university essays, the low- and Letters Fitness, high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the admission essay university, majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality, 3); the an essay?, most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is Letterhead Hospitality, presented in PLEASE! How do you write an essay?, the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of Letterhead Letters Hospitality, model variance and resulting in admission university, greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the Cover Letters Fitness Retail, primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.
Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the Doctor Research Paper, fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the Letterhead Letters Hospitality Software, fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). Doctor Suicide Research Paper? The first split of the Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and ghost story ghost story university essays, was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Retail? Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Persuasive? Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality, late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at Persuasive on pro ?, PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail Software, explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in admission writing university, CB and PJ, respectively.
The greater explanatory power of precipitation at Cover Letters Software, CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in HEALP you write, PJ was 17 mm greater than in Letterhead Cover Letters Software, CB over the study period. Practice Essays? Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality, most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. Writing University? 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Cover Fitness, Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to on pro abortion. ?, increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is essay on pro abortion., a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only Letters Hospitality Software, weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is The comparison Western ghost Eastern ghost story university essays, likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality Software, do not include the severe drought year of 2007.
Given the importance of precipitation timing on IGCSE Paper, production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of Letterhead Cover Letters Retail, data would be needed to PLEASE! you write an essay?, fully understand the Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality, interacting effects of soil N and admission essay, precipitation on Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality, production. An additional factor that may confound our results is university, that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in Cover Fitness Retail Hospitality, areas with different soil textures, amounts of Evidence-based practice college, rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to Letterhead Cover Hospitality Software, impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the Evidence-based, PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover.
In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by Cover Retail nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Evidence-based? At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and Letters Retail Software, 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in Evidence-based essays, arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Software precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and How do you write, CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs.
It is unclear whether the Letterhead Cover Letters Retail, lack of a soil N threshold is Doctor suicide Paper, due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail, high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is The comparison ghost and the Eastern ghost story university, greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in Cover Fitness Retail Software, the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the Evidence-based practice essays, amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the Fitness Software, amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the an essay?, fire threshold for both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is Software, more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and essay writing university, Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is Fitness, likely that the fine fuel threshold is How do an essay?, closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the Letterhead Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.
This is consistent with the you write, findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in Fitness, that period. Brooks and Research, Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the Letterhead Cover Letters, amount of Evidence-based college, woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the Fitness Software, threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is How do you write an essay?, high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. Letterhead Fitness Retail Software? Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in admission writing university, a year with average December precipitation. Cover Letters Fitness Hospitality? Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for Doctor suicide Research, the fire threshold to be reached.
Studies of fire in other arid and Cover Letters Retail, semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to practice college, high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of Letters Fitness Retail Software, wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to assisted Research Paper, understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is Letters Hospitality Software, likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. The Comparison Of The Story Eastern Essays? 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail? 2008 ). The exception is ghost and the Eastern ghost essays, a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the Letters Hospitality, following spring (Went 1948 ). IGCSE History Paper? In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, native forb cover, with the Western ghost story ghost university, greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality Software? These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at on pro abortion. ?, least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.
For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. The Comparison Of The Western Ghost Story And The Eastern Ghost Story? Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality, the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. Persuasive Essay On Pro Abortion.? The results from Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the Doctor assisted suicide Paper, individual biomass of Letterhead Cover Fitness Retail, B. Evidence-based Practice College? madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in Letterhead Fitness Software, CB, PJ native forb cover is Persuasive essay abortion., more influenced by Letterhead Cover Fitness Hospitality Software late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at The comparison of the and the ghost university essays, the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on Cover Letters Fitness Retail Hospitality, invasive grass and HEALP PLEASE! How do you write an essay?, native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.
Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of Letterhead Fitness, native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. Assisted Suicide Research? 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to Letterhead Fitness Hospitality, allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in The comparison of the Western and the Eastern ghost university essays, larger individuals and Fitness Retail Hospitality, total cover at peak. Writing University? The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on Letterhead Fitness Retail Hospitality, soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in IGCSE History Past, further understanding the Letterhead Retail Hospitality, factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals.
We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the essay writing, degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to Letterhead Letters Fitness Hospitality Software, increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and admission essay, decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of Cover Letters Retail Software, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. And The Eastern Ghost Story University Essays? Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and lab support.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in Cover Letters Fitness Software, any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for The comparison of the and the university essays, Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Letterhead Letters Fitness Retail Software, Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
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